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Greek and Roman Mythology Allusions Group 1

Prometheus (and Io), Pygmalion and Galatea, Narcissus, Persephone and Demeter, Daedalus (and Icarus), Daphne (and Apollo), Cupid and Psyche, Jason and the Argonauts

Alfredo Mabalot

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Greek and Roman Mythology Allusions Group 1

Allusions Project Greek and Roman
Mythology Allusions #1 Prometheus (and Io) Pygmalion and Galatea Narcissus Daedalus (and Icarus) Daphne (and Apollo) Persephone and Demeter Cupid and Psyche Cupid and Psyche are characters of a Greek Myth called “The Tale of Amour and Psyche.” Cupid is the son of the goddess Venus. (Roman Mythology) (in Greek, known as Eros and son of Aphrodite)
Psyche was a beautiful mortal girl who was so beautiful that Venus could not let her marry anyone else except her son Cupid who visits her every single night while she was mortal and they fell in love with each other.
However, Psyche’s sisters grew very jealous of their relationship. They ended up dying.
Psyche was losing her beauty though because she hasn’t been paying attention to Cupid and wasn’t putting in effort to their relationship because of the concern of her sisters.
She was sent to the underworld by Venus for breaking Cupid’s heart which made her realize who she was not.
Cupid saves her from the underworld and they both travel to the god Zeus, who gives them a potion that allows them to be immortal forever together. Venus forgives her as well and they live happily immortal together. Jason and the Argonauts Raul Lopez Desirae Lynda Lee Kaili Alfredo Mabalot Alfredo Mabalot Kayla Figone Krishan Lal Allusions
Painting: Narcissus - Caravaggio
Music: Black Narcissus - Joe Henderson
Opera: Narcissus - Gottfried Henrich Stolzel
Literature: Narcissus - Viola Meynell 1916
Black Narcissus - Rumer Godden 1939 Narcissism derives from the character in Greek mythology, Narcissus
Narcissus' mother asked Tiresias if Narcissus would live to old age. He responded "as long as he never knows himself"
Begins with a nymph named Echo. She was cursed by Hera for talking too much and stalling her
Curse only allowed her to repeat what someone else said before
Echo fell in love with Narcissus but Narcissus rejected her when he saw her
Narcissus enjoys rejecting Nymphs who fall in love with him
Narcissus was a beautiful young man ever since he was young
Narcissus enjoyed gazing at himself a lot
One day, he found a crystal clear pond and stared at his own reflection for a super long time. He was originally going to drink the water
He completely forgot about food and water and died staring at himself in the pond
His body was missing when the Elders tried to find it but they found a beautiful flower, called Narcissus. Major Characters and What They Symbolize:
Venus (goddess of love and beauty): the romantic attributes of love
Cupid: Cupid's arrow releases the expression of one's deepest feelings and secret thoughts while ignoring any concern about the less-than-perfect qualities of the beloved. He symbolizes true love.
Psyche: symbol of the soul, gives form to idealized love. Idealized love awakens the human awareness of a life apart from self and family. Cupid and Psyche Painting Cupid and Valentine's Day Part of the Song of Solomon Biblical Allusion
1 I am the rose of Sharon,
and the lily of the valleys.2 As the lily among thorns
so is my love among the daughters.3 As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons.I sat down under his shadow with great delight,and his fruit was sweet to my taste.4 He brought me to the banqueting house,and his banner over me was love.
5 Stay me with flagons, comfort me with apples: for I am sick of love.6 His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me.7 I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem,by the roes, and by the hinds of the field,
that ye stir not up, nor awake my love,till he please.8 The voice of my beloved!Behold, he comethleaping upon the mountains,skipping upon the hills.
9 My beloved is like a roe or a young hart:behold, he standeth behind our wall,he looketh forth at the windows,showing himself through the lattice.10 My beloved spake, and said unto me,Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away.11 For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone;
12 the flowers appear on the earth; the time of the singing of birds is come,and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land;13 the fig tree putteth forth her green figs, and the vines with the tender grape give a good smell.Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away.14 O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the secret places of the stairs,let me see thy countenance,let me hear thy voice;for sweet is thy voice,and thy countenance is comely.15 Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines:for our vines have tender grapes.16 My beloved is mine, and I am his:he feedeth among the lilies.17 Until the day break,and the shadows flee away,turn, my beloved,and be thou like a roe or a young hart upon the mountains of Bether. Did Cupid come from Sagitarrius? Or did Sagitarrius come from Cupid? Literary Allusion: The Scarlet Letter Demeter was the goddess of harvest and when she was happy, crops thrived, but if she became upset they would all die.
Her daughter Persephone was the person who made her the happiest and made harvests plentiful and fertile.
Hades, the God of the Underworld fell in love with Persephone and kidnapped her, upsetting Demeter and sending the earth into a permanent winter
Persephone locked herself in a room, refusing to talk to anyone and not eating, because eating food from the underworld would bind her there forever. After a week she finally gave into her hunger and ate six of the Underworld's pomegranate seeds.
Hermes was sent by Zeus to strike a deal with Hades
The arrival and departure of Persephone on Earth is the cause for seasons. Allusions
Literature - Chocolat by Joanne Harris
- House of Women by Lynn Freed
- Dracula by Bram Stoker
Art - The [Abduction] of Persephone by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1622
- Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1877 Citations Prometheus (and Io) Pygmalion and Galatea Narcissus Atsma, Aaron J. "PROMETHEUS." Theoi Greek Mythology, Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanPrometheus.html> "Pygmalion." Encyclopedia Mythica from Encyclopedia Mythica Online.
8 Oct. 2012.<http://www.pantheon.org/articles/p/pygmalion.html> Skillful craftsman and artisan.
He is the father of Icarus and Iapyx and the uncle of Perdix.Daedalus was imprisoned with his son in a labyrinth on an island named Crete.
Daedalus conceived to escape from the Labyrinth with Icarus from Crete by constructing wings and then flying to safety. He built the wings from feathers and wax, and before the two set off he warned Icarus not to fly too low lest his wings touch the waves and get wet, and not too high lest the sun melt the wax.
Icarus, overwhelmed by the thrill of flying, did not heed his father's warning, and flew too close to the sun whereupon the wax in his wings melted and he fell into the sea.
Daedalus escaped to Sicily and Icarus' body was carried ashore by the current to an island then without a name.
Heracles came across the body and recognized it, giving it burial where today there still stands a small rock promontory jutting out into the Aegean Sea, and naming the island and the sea around it after the fallen Icarus. Major Characters
Hercules Major Characters and What They Symbolize:
Pygmalion- Breath of life. Life is everywhere.
Galatea- A symbol of embodiment.
Venus- love, beauty, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory. Major Characters and What They Symbolize: Major Characters and What They Symbolize: Major Characters:
-Jason-Hero figure/leader
-Argonauts-Loyal followers
-Pelias-Jason’s evil uncle who murdered Jason’s father
-Medea-the witch princess, one of the guardians of the fleece who falls in love with and runs away with Jason
-Aeson-Jason’s farther who appears to him in a dream
-King Aeetes-The King of the End of the world, guardian of the fleece and Medea’s father. Major Characters and What They Symbolize:
Daedalus- inventor of carpentry
Icarus- symbolizes prematurity, sense for adventure (often resulting in failure)
Heracles- can both be seen as male and female and holds equality Major Characters and What They Symbolize:
Daphne- symbolizes an unobtainable thing
Apollo- symbolizes want and tease
Eros (Cupid)- symbolizes love
Peneus- symbolizes creation William Blake's "The Tyger" Peter Paul Ruben's Chained Prometheus Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin In The Sun William Shakespeare’s Othello Into the Night Sky Where the Gods Take Form as Constellations Echo - no symbol, just a "nymph"
Hera - Goddess of Speech
Narcissus - Symbol of the dangers of rejecting love
Narcissus as a flower - Preserves the beauty and allows others to enjoy it without selflessness Themes of Narcissus Pride - Allows us to be aware of self-adoration
Love and Lust - The difference between falling in love and being lustful for another (obsession)
Transformation - From Ovid's "The Metamorphoses" which is "to change or transform"
They transform by Echo becoming a bodiless voice and by Narcissus becoming a flower
Because they refused to change their emotions, when they died, their bodies changed. • Prometheus was a titan who took Zeus's side when he overthrew his father, the titan king Kronos

• Named Protector of Mankind, Bringer of Fire.

• Prometheus journeyed from Mt. Olympus to Earth, made clay figures which became man

• Prometheus stole the secret of fire from the gods and gave it to mankind

• Had Prometheus chained to a rock on the Caucasus Mountains with celestial bindings.

• Zeus's sacred animal, an eagle, swooped down every night to tear out his liver. Being immortal, it always grew back. • While serving his punishment, a strange visitor arrived.
• Looked like a cow, but had the voice of a girl who seemed mad with misery.
• Prometheus told Io his story and Io told him was turned into a cow by Zeus.
• Zeus fell in love with Io, Hera grew jealous.
• Zeus tried to hide himself and Io by wrapping a cloud around the earth.
• Hera called off the cloud, Zeus transformed Io into a cow.
• Claimed that the cow had been born from the earth.
• Hera did not believe this and she made Zeus give the cow to her
• Hera handed Io into the charge of Argus.
• Had a hundred eyes, could sleep with some of his eyes and guard Io with the others.
• Zeus told Hermes to kill Argus.
• Hermes bored the Argus with stories and music.
• When Argus' eyes finally all fell asleep, Hermes killed him but not before Hera took his eyes and placed them on her favorite bird, the peacock.
• Hera sent to peacock to drive Io into madness. Symbols
-Narcissus- embodiment of beauty
-The pool (mirror)- reflection of true self
-The blind prophet- someone who can actually see nothing, but everything at the same time
-Repetition • Upon reaching the Nile, Zeus returned her to human form.

• Had a son, Epaphus, and Io's descendant in the future would be Hercules.

• Prometheus was later freed by Hercules as one of his 12 labors. Kayla's
Bingley. “Myths and Legends – Apuleius.” Tale of Cupid and Psyche. Web. 7 October 2012. <ancienthistory.about.com>. Pygmalion was an artist and a bachelor who carved a beautiful ivory statue that he fell in love with,Galatea.
Galatea held his heart; he would spend much time with his work sometimes forgetting she was made of ivory. He would kiss her, hold her and speak to her.
Pygmalion would complement the figure, bring her gifts:Heliadum lacrimas flowers, place rings on her fingers, necklaces around her neck and place the statue on a nicely made bed.
On the day of the festival of Venus Pygmalion made an offering to the gods saying “if you can grant all things, you gods, I wish as a bride to have one like my ivory girl.”
Venus understood his prayer, when Pygmalion returned home and leaned over to kiss her figure she felt warm. When he touched the ivory it turned to flesh (human). Pygmalion was so happy that Galatea was human. Venus attended their marriage; the two had a son Paphos. François Boucher Jean-Léon Gérôme Apollo was a great archer, but sometimes he was a little full of himself. One day he caught sight of Eros, the son of Aphrodite.
Eros was also an archer, and his arrows were responsible for instilling the twists and turns of love and lust in a person's heart. Apollo teased young Eros, putting down his abilities as an archer, claiming that one so small could make no difference with his arrows.
Angry at this insult, Eros shot two arrows, one tipped in gold which is absolute love, and one blunted and tipped with lead which holds negative emotions towards love.
The arrow dipped in gold struck Apollo, but the arrow dipped in lead struck fair Daphne.Daphne was the daughter of the river god Peneus. Apollo chased down the maiden, desperate for her love, but she wanted nothing to do with him, and she ran from him endlessly, but she grew weary in her running and that Apollo would ultimately catch her.
Fearful, she called out to her father for help. As all gods of water posses the ability of transformation, Peneus transformed his daughter into a laurel tree. Suddenly her legs took root, and her arms grew into long and slender branches.
Apollo reached the laurel tree, and, still enamored with Daphne, held the tree in a special place in his heart. He claimed the tree the as his special tree, and adorned himself with some of it's leaves. And that is why the laurel was, and still is, a symbol of the god Apollo. Demeter - Goddess of harvest, symbolizing motherly love and Earth
Persephone - Queen of the Underworld who symbolizes spring
Hades - King of the Underworld who symbolizes winter Citation for Demeter/Persephone
Kay, JCM. "Aspects of the Demeter/Persephone Myth in Modern Fiction." Scholar.sun.ac.za. Stellenbosch University, 2006. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. Jason, the son of Aeson, was the leader of the Argonauts and the husband of Medea. Because of a prophecy that Jason would someday do him harm, King Pelias of Iolcos sent Jason on a seemingly impossible quest to bring the Golden Fleece back from distant Colchis. He went to Colchis on the largest ship ever made, the Argos.
When they arrived at Colchis, King Aeetes demanded that Jason accomplish a series of tasks to get the Golden Fleece.
Jason accomplished all these tasks with the help of Medea, Aeetes' daughter, who had fallen in love with him. After obtaining the Golden Fleece, Jason and Medea fled from Colchis, pursued by King Aeetes' men.
On their voyage back to Iolcos, they encountered the perils of Scylla and Charybdis and the isle of the Sirens as well as Talos the bronze guardian of Crete. In Iolcos, Medea contrived the murder of King Pelias, after which she and Jason fled to Corinth. In Corinth, after many years of marriage, Jason finally deserted Medea to marry King Creon's daughter; Medea wreaked a terrible vengeance, killing the bride and Creon, and even murdering her own children. She then escaped, leaving Jason to mourn his losses. Jason was killed years later when he was struck on the head by a timber from the Argo. THEME: attaining mature love thrives eternally...
This means that love can take many forms such as premature and jealousy. It shows that love, when mature, will grow into a fruitful relationship. Symbols/Themes Themes:
A mother's love. Demeter dropped all her work and other responsibilities and tracked the kidnapped Persephone to and through the gates of Hell and faced down the Lord of Death himself in order bring her back.
Another theme is the concept that a married daughter is no longer bound solely to her mother and that the husband has some rightful claims on her time and loyalty. Persephone had to promise to spend one month per swallowed pomegranate seed in Hades with her husband to be allowed to spend the rest of the year with her mother. People are not bound to each other by marriage without limits. The Galaxy Darkness Light Tyranny & Friendship
Fire Theme: Love is not bound by moral or immoral rules or laws. Love can be found in many ways, take form in many shapes and can grow purely out of nothing. Shows true love in it's purest form. Theme: Society establishes rules for a reason and those rules are often there for your own benefit. This can be seen through Icarus' fall and how life needs laws to help keep order in the world. The Story of Narcissus. The Story of Narcissus. 2012. narcissus.info. Web. 30 September 2012 Pygmalion Adoring Statue Étienne Maurice Falconet The flower Narcissus represents Caravaggio Say Anything - Narcissus Music Pew Pew Narcissism is a term with a wide range of meanings, depending on whether it is used to describe a central concept of psychoanalytic theory, a mental illness, a social or cultural problem, or simply a personality trait. Except in the sense of primary narcissism or healthy self-love, "narcissism" usually is used to describe some kind of problem in a person or group's relationships with self and others. In everyday speech, "narcissism" often means egoism, vanity, conceit, or simple selfishness. Applied to a social group, it is sometimes used to denote elitism or an indifference to the plight of others. In psychology, the term is used to describe both normal self-love and unhealthy self-absorption due to a disturbance in the sense of self. Allusions:
Book-Eragon (fall of Saphira and Eragon)
Anime and Manga-Ergo Proxy (fall of wing proxy by sun exposure)
Music-"Carry on Wayward Son"-Kansas
Music-"Flight of Icarus"-Iron Maiden
Video Games-Kid Icarus Uprising
Arts-"Icarus and Daedalus"-Paul Landon 1799
Arts-"Daedalus and Icarus"-Anthony van Dyke Further to the west, Daedalus arrived safely in Sicily, in the care of King Cocalus of Kamikos on the island's south coast; there he built a temple to Apollo, and hung up his wings, an offering to the god. In an invention of Virgil (Aeneid VI), Daedalus flies to Cumae and founds his temple there, rather than in Sicily; long afterwards Aeneas confronts the sculpted golden doors of the temple. Themes:
Love is seen here through how Apollo goes through anything to get to Apollo.
Lust can also be interpreted by Apollo's actions.
Life lessons are also here by how Apollo teased Cupid which led to strife. Symbols:
Gold arrow represents love and lust.
Lead arrow represents oppression.
Laurel tree represents a circle of love. Allusions:
Art (Statue)-Apollo and Daphne-Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Art (Painting)-Apollo and Daphne-Antonio del Pollaiuolo
Object-Laurel tree, wreaths, leaves
Book-"The Treasure of Heaven"-Marie Corelli
Alludes to victory-Laurel crowns at the end of races Themes:
-the hero and his quest for a prize; the series of impossible tasks performed with magic or supernatural help.
-the winning by the hero of a princess as his bride Shmoop Editorial Team. "Daedalus and Icarus Summary" Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 9 Oct. 2012 Shmoop Editorial Team. "Apollo and Daphne Summary" Shmoop.com. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. Symbols
-Golden Fleece-symbolizes rarity and impossibility
-the Dragon-an obstacle that the hero must defeat in order to overcome their limitations. Allusions
-Literary: The Life and Death of Jason (1867) by William Morris
Hercules, My Shipmate (1945) by Robert Graves
Jason and Medeia by John Gardner, a modern, epic poem in English.
-Art: Jason with the Golden Fleece, Bertel Thorvaldsen's first masterpiece.
-Poem-"Inferno" by Dante www.mythweb.com/heroes/jason/ www.greeka.com › Thessaly › Pelion BOOM! Star~ Hi class! ssshhh...it's supposed to be symbolic Best Group Alfredo sauce... ...makes me hungry. Fancy zoom for daaaaaaayyyyyyyzzzzzzz!!! Almost done...
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