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Transcript of Colonial America
- England's Queen Elizabeth gave Sir Walter Raleigh permission to claim land in North America
- 1st Trip - He sends scouts to what is today North Carolina in 1585,
-A harsh winter forces them to leave back to England
- 2nd Trip - led by John White 2 years later
- White's grand-daughter, Virginia Dare, was the first English person born in North America
- White leaves back to England for supplies, yet stays for almost 3 years because England is at war with Spain
- When he returns, there is no sign of the settlers.
- The only clue he has is the word Croatoan, carved out on a tree
- England's new king, James I, wanted to try and colonize America again
- He allowed merchants to apply for a charter (document that granted the right to form a colony)
The Virginia Company
- The group arrived to Virginia in 1607 and named their new settlement Jamestown, in honor of their king.
Lesson 1 - Roanoke and Jamestown
- Their plan was to find gold and trade fish and fur back to England
- The colony faced many difficulties, but it survived due to the leadership of Captain John Smith.
- He forced the settlers to work and asked the local Powhatan people for help
- The colonists began to grow tobacco and made money for the investors of the Virginia Company
More Settlers Come to Virginia
- When colonist, John Rolfe, married the Powhatan chief's daughter Pocahantas, the relation between the two groups improved.
- The Virginia Company wanted to attract more settlers to Virginia, so they offered a headright (land grant of 50 acres)
- In 1619, colonists started a House of Burgessess (group of representatives)
Lesson 2 - New England Colonies
- A group called the Pilgrims left England for religious freedom
- They traveled on the Mayflower and drifted north to Cape Cod. They landed in Massachusetts in a place they called Plymouth.
The Mayflower Compact
- While on the ship, the Pilgrims signed a contract that set up an organized government for when they arrived.
- Each colonist promised to obey the laws passed "for the general good of the colony".
Native American Help
- Two Native Americans, Squanto and Samoset, became friends with the Pilgrims and showed them how to survive off the land.
- In 1621, the Pilgrims thanked them for all of their help in what would be known as the first Thanksgiving meal.
- A group of Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company and founded the city of Boston
- The Puritans strictly enforced their religious beliefs and had little tolerance (pg. 67) for those who did not follow their ways.
- This led many people to want to form their own colonies
Conflict with Native Americans
- Many times, the colonists settled on Native American land without permission or money, which angered many tribes.
- In 1675, a Wampanoag chief named Metacomet, declared war on the New England Colonies.
- Known as "King Phillip's War", it lasted 14 months
- Native Americans lost and colonists kept expanding onto native lands
Lesson 3 - The Middle Colonies
- This area was owned by the Dutch and called New Netherland.
- The Dutch West India Company controlled it, and the largest city was called New Amsterdam (Manhattan).
- Founded by William Penn, who was part of a religious group called the Quakers
- Quakers were pacifists
- He designed the city of Philadelphia (meaning brotherly love)
Lesson 4 - Southern Colonies
- To help tend to the tobacco farms, colonists brought over enslaved Africans
- This was the last British colony established
- James Ogelthorpe received a charter to start a colony where the poor could make a fresh start and pay off their debts (called indentured servants).
- The English also wanted to block any Spanish attack from Florida and set up forts in Savannah
Chapters 3 and 4
New England Economies
- Because of the cold winters and rocky soil, farming here was only subsistence farming (family farms) - not for sale
- Colonial ships were built from the lumber in the forests
- Fishing was also very important
- The British fought off the Dutch and renamed it New York
The economy of the Middle colonies was mostly agricultural.
The economy of the Southern colonies was farming on large plantations.
- Many colonies had their own representatives, however they still had to follow British laws
- English Parliament
the French and British
- Both competed for wealth and empires around the world
- Britain wanted to expand into the Ohio Valley (which belonged to France)
- France began building forts along the Ohio border and Britain responded by building a fort in Pennsylvania
- Before Britain finished building the fort, France took it and built one of their own called Fort Duquesne
- Soon, the governor of Virginia sent a militia led by George Washington to kick out the French.
- They marched to Fort Duquesne, but the French quickly attacked and Washington's group surrendered
- Delegates from the colonies met and talked about how the colonies should unite to fight the French (but no colony wanted to give up control)
Native American Alliances
- France became allies with the Native Americans for two reasons:
1. Native Americans and the French settlers had traded fur for many years
2. Native Americans did not like how the British took away their land
Location - North America
The French and Indian War
- The French had early success (captured British forts and Native Americans burned many towns)
- Turning point -> William Pitt becomes British Prime Minister
- He sends more English troops to North America
- To stop colonists from complaining, he said England will pay for the war
- His goal -> conquer Ohio Valley and French Canada
- Britain soon conquers Fort Duquesne and renames is Fort Pitt
- Within 2 years Quebec and Montreal were taken over by the British
- The war ends with the French surrendering and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763
- France loses Canada and their land east of the Mississippi River to Britain
- Britain receives Florida from Spain (France's ally)
- Spain gets land west of the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans