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Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight

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Jacqueline Lammert

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Jacqueline Lammert
Andy Steinhauer

1.)Get America Fit Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.getamericafit.org/statistics-obesity-in-america.html>

2.) "Hydrostatic Weighing." Discount Suppliments. N.p., n.d. Web. 2013. <http://www.discount-supplements.co.uk/blog/5-ways-measure-body-fat/hydrostatic-weighin-400x400/>

3.) "How to Measure your Body Fat." Bodyrock . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.bodyrock.tv/2009/02/13/how-to-measure-and-calculate-your-body-fat-percentage/>

4.) "Bio-Impedance." Living Active. N.p., 8 Nov. 2011. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://salinalivingactive.blogspot.com/2011/11/bio-impedance-test.html>.

5.) "Rethinking Calories Control." Happily Deviant. N.p., 8 Nov. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2010. <http://salinalivingactive.blogspot.com/2011/11/bio-impedance-test.html>.

6.) Friedman, Jeffrey. "The Real Cause of Obesity." The Daily Beast. N.p., 9 Sept. 2009. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2009/09/09/the-real-cause-of-obesity.html>.

7.) Sifferlin, Alexandra. "New Genes IDd in Obesity: How Much of Weight is Genetic?." Time Health and Family. N.p., 19 July 2013. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://healthland.time.com/2013/07/19/news-genes-idd-in-obesity-how-much-of-weight-is-genetic/>.

8.) Miles, Kathleen. ""Fat Genes" Determine Obesity, UCLA Study Says, In Addition to Diet and Exercise." Huff Post Los Angelas. N.p., 10 Jan. 2013. Web. 16 Sept. 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/10/fat-genes-obesity-ucla-study-diet-exercise_n_2450108.html>.

9.) Sachteleben, Marilisa K. "Missing "exercise Gene" Just Another Excuse for Obesity, Senedtary Lifestyle." Yohoo! News. N.p., 10 Sept. 2011. Web. 16 Sept. 2013. <http://news.yahoo.com/missing-exercise-gene-just-another-excuse-obesity-sedentary-203800712.html>.

10.) "Genes are Not Destiny." Harvard School of Public Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-causes/genes-and-obesity/>.

11.) "What Causes Uverweight and Obesity?." National Institutes of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/causes.html>.

12.) Donatelle, Rebecca J. Access to Health. 13th ed. Glenview: Pearson Education, 2012. 238-65. Print.

13.) "The Role of Hormones in Losing Weight." Weightloss For all . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2013. <http://www.weightlossforall.com/hormones-role-x.htm>.

14.) Perry, Susan. "Worth Its Weight? The Debate About Birth Control and Weight Gain." Experience Life. N.p., May 2004. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://experiencelife.com/article/worth-its-weight-the-debate-about-birth-control-and-weight-gain/>.

15.) Stoppler, Melissa C. "Sterss, Hormones, and Weight Gain." Medicine Net. N.p., 27 Feb. 2007. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=53304>.

16.) "Are you Using Menopause as an Excuse for Your Muffin Top?." Fit Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2013. <http://www.fitwatch.com/weight-loss/are-you-using-menopause-as-an-excuse-for-your-muffin-top-689.html>.

17.) Maclin, Amy. "Your hormones and Weight Loss: How to Find Balance." Whole Living: Body and Soul Balance. N.p., May 2010. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.wholeliving.com/133532/your-hormones-and-weight-loss-how-find-balance>.

18.) White, Donna. "Are Your Hormones Causing You to Gain Weight?." N.p., 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.
"The surge in obesity in this country is nothing short of a public health crisis that is threatening our children, our families, and our futures. In fact, the health consequences are so severe that medical experts have warned that our children could be on track to live shorter lives than their parents."

-First Lady Michelle Obama, Introduction of New Plan to Combat Overweight and Obesity, Press Conference, Alexandria, Virginia, January 28, 2010
Obesogenic: Characterized by environments that promote increased food intake, nonhealthful foods, and physical inactivity.
Today, 72 million adults in the united states are obese.
Obesity is now the second cause of preventable death, behind only smoking, and is quickly closing the gap.
Obesity and Inactivity Increase Health Risks & Costs Money:
heart disease
disability from arthritis
(in 2010, 26 million American adutls had it, and 57 million adults had prediabetes)
sleep apnea
mental state
among others
The annual cost of obesity in the U.S exceeds $147 billion in medical expenses and lost productivity.

Factors Contributing to overweight and obesity:
Genetic and Physiological factors
Environmental Factors
Physiological and Economic Factors
Lifestyle Factors
Genes: A Variety of Theories
Although decades of research have been conducted, the true role of genes in one's predisposition towards obesity remains a question.

Studies state that family history of obesity increases one's chance of becoming obese.
Weather that is due to learned eating/exercise behavior, environmental cues, genes, or a combination of these factors in unknown.
Studies have been conducted that support all different theories.
Researchers continue to explore weather genes play an important role in setting metabolic rates, influencing how the body balances calories and energy, of causing us to crave certain foods.
It is important to note that if genetics are found to play a role, it does not mean some people are doomed to a lifetime of battling weight. A healthy lifestyle can override "obesity" genes.
Those who seemed to be beating their obesity tendencies exercised for 90 min a day, compared to those who exercised for 30.
Metabolic Rates:
Many aspects of your metabolism play a role in determining weather you gain, maintain, or lose weight:

Basal Metabolic Rate:
Rate of energy expenditure by a body completely at rest in a neutral environment.

Resting Metabolic Rate:
Energy expenditure of a body under BMR conditions plus other daily sedentary activities.

Exercise Metabolic Rate:
The energy expenditure that occurs during exercise.

Adaptive Thermogenesis:
Theoretical mechanism by which the brain regulated metabolic activity according to caloric intake.

Set Point Theory:
Suggests our bodies fight to maintain our weight (withing narrow limits). If we go on drastic starvation diets, our bodies adjust by slowing down our BMR to conserve energy, thus directly negatively effecting our diet efforts. Set points can be changed permanently by a healthy diet, and exercise, which will result is steady weight loss instead of yo-yo dieting and weight gain.

Your BMR and RMR fluctuate considerably throughout life, slowing as you age.

Hormonal Influences: Ghrelin and Leptin
Ghrelin: "The hunger hormone".
Leptin: The appetite regulation hormone in mammals.

While hormones have a direct effect on a person's ability to lose weight, have control over their appetite, and sense being full, the problem with over consumption may have more to do with satiety and environmental cues as opposed to appetite or actual hunger.
Fat Cells and Predisposition to Fatness:
A condition characterized by an excessive number of fat cells.

Hyperplasia can be directly caused by the mothers diet in the last 2-3 months of fetal development, the first year of life, and between the ages of 9-13. This is because the number of fat cells present in ones body does not increase during adulthood.

Once a person has hyperplasia, the only way to gain or loose weight is to swell or shrink the size of the cells, because the number will always be the same.

Average weight adult: 25-35 billion fat cells.
Extremely obese: 200 billion.
Environmental Factors:
Greater access to high calorie (low nutrient dense) foods:
Advertising geared towards fast, easy, cheap food
Unhealthy prepackaged meals
Working women increased in number= less home cooked meals
Bottle feeding infants instead of breast feeding
Misleading food labels
Fast food, cafe's, vending machines,
Larger portions (dishes, cups, utensils)
Early Sabotage: Obesity Starting Young
Larger portions of junk food coupled with continually decreasing amounts of physical activity among children are the reason for a higher rate of childhood obesity than any other previous generation.

Recent studies have suggested that maternal undernutrition, obesity, and diabetes during gestation and lactation are strong predictors of obesity in children.
Psychosocial and Economic Factors:
Friends and loved ones are key influences in eating behaviors
Food is associated with celebration and enjoyment, as well as used for comfort when other things aren't going well
When economic times are hard, people turn to cheap, unhealthy food options
Unsafe neighborhoods with lack of recreational areas, etc. makes it hard for the people living there to exercise
The more educated an individual, the lower their BMI tends to be
Lifestyle Factors:
Of all the factors affecting obesity, one of the most important is energy level vs. calorie intake.

This is the most sedentary our country has ever been. Although 31% of U.S. adults report on engaging in 30 min. of moderate PA on 5 or more days per week, only 3-5% of them actually achieve this much.

Exercise and nutrient dense, healthy food needs to be made fun and accessible to the masses for success in treating this obesity epidemic.
What To Do:
Now that we have covered the many dis-
advantages of overweight and obesity, and how the epidemic continues to grow, it is time to look at how to reverse this growing problem:
Assess Body Weight and Composition
Learn how to manage weight
Assessing Body Weight and Body Comp:
All people have their own ideal body weight based on things such as body structure, height, and fat distribution.
The amount of body fat, along with where it is distributed throughout the body are tell tale signs of certain diseases. It is important to note that not all fat is bad. Essential fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions, and it regulates body temperature, cushions and insulates internal organs, and is a source of stored energy for the body.
Having a Body Weight more than 10% above healthy recommended levels; In an adult, a BMI of 25-29

A body weight more than 20% above healthy recommended levels (BMI of 30 or more in adults)

Morbidly Obese:
Having a body weight 100% or more above healthy recommended levels. (Adult BMI >40).

Waste-to-hip Ratio:
Waste circumference divided by hip circumference. A high ratio indicates increased health risks due to unhealthy fat distribution.
Determine Which Category You Fall In:
Body Mass Index (BMI):
A number calculated from a person's weight and height. It is used to assess risk for health problems.

Limitations of BMI:
The base metabolism index levels do not take in to account that muscle weighs more than fat. As a result, a physically fit, muscular person could weigh enough to be classified as obese for their particular height. Bone mass and water weight are not considered either. For these people, methods below should be used for calculating body fat.

Hydrostatic Weighing: Compares weight under water vs. out of water (2-3% error)
Skinfolds: Involves pinching skin (and the fat underneath) at various areas on the body with calipers, and calculating (3-4% error)
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA): Sends low levels of electrical current through the body (fat is not a good conductor). The speed of the electrical current gives a reading of accuracy between 3-4%.
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorbency (DXA): Uses low levels of x ray to differentiate between different types of tissue. 2-4% margin of error.
Bod Pod: Uses air displacement to determine body composition.2-3% margin of error.
Hydrostatic Weighing:
Skinfold Calipers:
Bioelectrical Impedance:
Managing Weight:
"Dieting" is short term, and usually not successful. Certain diets or calorie restrictions can lead to binge eating and may be physiologically harmful as well as emotionally harmful.
Analyzing your diet and making long term lifestyle changes (exercise and a healthier/more appropriate diet) will have a direct positive effect on your weight loss/gain goals.
Improving Eating Habits:
Find out what triggers unhealthy eating habits
Keep a food journal which includes:
When you began to feel hungry
Where you were when you decided to eat
Time spent eating
Activities done while eating (t.v. computer, etc.)
Alone/with others?
What you eat and how much
Keeping a detained food journal will help you detect triggers and get them under control.
Educate yourself: Weight goals will be easier to maintain if you understand basic nutrition.
Keep healthy munchies around (Whole wheat bread, peanut butter, hummus)
Keep "crunchies" around (apples, veggies, etc.)
Choose natural beverages or better yet, water.
Eat nuts instead of candy
Want chocolate? Eat a small, 70% cocoa piece

Including Exercise:
"Increasing metabolic rate will burn calories. Increases in intensity, frequency, and duration of daily exercise levels will have a significant impact on total calorie expenditure because lean (muscle) tissue is more metabolically active than fat tissue." Experts currently estimate between 2-50 more calories/day are burned from muscle compared to fat. This is the reason that the base level of calories needed to maintain a healthy weight varies between individuals that may be the same "size".
The number of calories spent during a workout depends on three things:
1.) The number and proportion of muscles used
2.)The amount of weight moved
3.) The length of time the activity is performed
Understanding Calories and Energy Balance:
Calorie: Unit of measure which indicates the amount of energy gained from food or expended from activity. 3,500 calories make up one pound.
Drastic Weight-Loss:
In a nutshell, drastic weight loss measures are ineffective in the long run and can be very dangerous (unless necessary and supervised by a doctor).

Before going on an extreme caloric deficit, drug treatment, or considering surgery, all other less drastic options should be tried and failed.

Very-low-calorie Diets (VLCDs): Consuming 400-700 calories/day.
Trying to Gain Weight:
Determine why you can't gain weight
Being underweight has its own dangers, as being overweight does.
Make sure your calories in are greater than those that are expended during daily activity.
Where We Lack:
As Individuals, we lack in motivation, self discipline, knowledge and self education. We are consumed by technology, and unfortunately we do not use it to our advantage. We lack self love, and we blame others for our current problems.

We all make up the society we live in, so all of the things that we as individuals lack is incorporated into society as a whole. Our society lacks education (for all ages). The media and advertising feeds into the body image issues we deal with daily, while promoting unhealthy food and habits.
Where We Excel:
As individuals, most people have the desire to change. We look for motivation in our daily lives, and we make attempts at being healthy.

As a society, the fitness industry is growing in size. More gyms are opening in more areas, as well as whole foods stores and health(ier) on the go food options are available for people. There are also community opportunities available in more areas than ever before. More people are being educated daily about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. It is a slow but growing process.
Why Is Society This Way?
Lack of education/ false information regarding health and wellness
In the last 50 years, there has been a significant increase in unhealthy options and convenience
Fast food, and processed food are commonplace in the home
Children are not learning how to grow or cook food
Computers, robots and machines have taken many of our physical jobs (now people sit at a desk in front of a computer daily, and come home and relax in front of a T.V.)
Physical activity among children has decreased with computers, phones, and T.V.
As a society, we have grown in the wrong areas. Our school system uses a sedentary teaching style that prepares children for a sedentary college career, for a sedentary job. Not much emphasis is put on careers such as Outdoor Recreation and Leadership Management, or others of that sort, and many people are not even aware of their existence.
How Can We Fix This?
Make education for all ages available on appropriate nutrition and exercise
Reform the "physical education" system, requiring more years of PE classes in schools (k-college), but also providing more options
Cut down on amount eaten, and increase quality of fast food
Children should be taught the art of growing food, and the basics of cooking in school
Do chores the "old" way. Rake the leaves, shovel the snow, etc. instead of working with a machine
Get children outside at a young age to develop a loving relationship with nature, so as they grow the continue to spend time outdoors
All in all, our education system needs to shift to a teaching style that involves children, instead of a "sit-and-listen" approach.
1.) Are genetics to blame for weight gain?

2.) Do hormones have a significant effect in determining weight?
Are Genetics to Blame for Weight Gain?
Obesity is a hereditary asset just as height, or hair color (6)
Rare genetic mutations make it hard for some people to burn off fat calories (7)
Specific genes can also make people crave high fat foods (7)
Some genes intercept the feeling of satiety (7)
There are 30 possible genes associated with body mass index (7)
If people consume a high fat diet, their body composition will be determined mostly by genetics (8)

"A gene that causes fat storage make sense. The more fat the body produces, the more capacity it has to retain weight" (9). But it is a learned adaptation due to the stressors put on the human body, not the other way around.
Lack of an "exercise gene" is a vague speculation. People aren't obese because they lack a gene for exercise, if anything they lack the gene because of sedentary behavior (9).
Genes play a part in all that relates to the human body, but not enough to solely determine if one will be obese or not. Diet and exercise play a much bigger role (10).
The fact about the rare genetic mutations that cause significant weight gain that many studies leave out, is that it is accompanied by mental retardation or other complications (10).
Families share the same lifestyle habits, therefore share health or overweight and obesity (11).
Do Hormones Have a Significant Effect in Determining Weight?
Weight gain when under stress may also be at least partly due to the body's system of hormonal checks and balances (13)

Cortisol stimulates fat and carbohydrate metabolism for fast energy, and stimulates insulin release and maintenance of blood sugar levels. The end result of these actions can be an increase in appetite (13)

Disruption of cortisol secretion may not only promote weight gain, but it can also affect where you put on the weight (14)

Carrying weight around your abdomen is bad for your health – worse than carrying weight on your hips or thighs – and is a key indicator of a hormonal imbalance (15)
Some people taking birth control gain weight thinking and accepting that a change in hormones is to blame when truly they are gaining simply from an unhealthy lifestyle (16)

Our way of life plays a huge role in the hormonal makeup inside us (17)

A 2004 study at the University of Chicago was the first to show sleep as a major regulator of appetite-controlling hormones – it boosts leptin, the hormone that tells you to put down the fork (18)
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