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Copy of COMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

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on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of COMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

CLT
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)
Brown 2007: Teaching by principles, chapter 3
WHAT IS CLT ?

CLT is a postmodern approach to language teaching assigning outmost significance to communicative interaction as a means and objective of language learning.

CLT and its "sub-domains"
Due to current trends and research, CLT was followed by several innovative concepts, such as:


Christiane Klempin & (layout:
Carolina Salamanca)


Prior methods and approaches focused primarily on the
mastery of grammatical competence

Language learning was viewed as a process of
mechanical habit formation
(e.g. pattern drills, e.g. audiolingual method, grammar translation method)

Learning was very much seen as under the
control of the teacher


With CLT began a movement away from traditional lesson formats,
where the focus was on mastery of different items
of grammar, CLT emphasizes cooperative and collaborative work instead.

Pair work activities
Role plays
Group work activities
Project work
Portfolio assessment
A skill-based syllabus
>>> Focuses on the four
skills
reading, writing, listening, and speaking

A functional syllabus
>>> Organized according to the
functions
pragmatic, grammatical,
semantic, sociocultural etc.)


Accuracy
Versus Fluency Activities
>>> the development of fluency in
language use is emphasized

Mechanical, Meaningful, and
Communicative Practice is employed
Seeks to develop students’ communicative competence
Creates opportunities for communication, interaction, and negotiation of meaning
Makes use of content that connects to students’ lives and interests
Teachers act as co-learners, coaches, and facilitators of learning
students take on a collaborative, active role

Characteristics of TBLT
major focus is on tasks
>>> differentiation between pedagogical/target tasks
tasks are means to solve a communicative problem
tasks establish a relation to real-world contexts
tasks build on one another to achieve a specific learning goals
Learner-Centered
Instruction
Characteristics

focuses on the learner as opposed to teacher-centered instruction
employs techniques, curriculum, activities and tasks that are in line with the needs, styles and goals of the learner
OBJECTIVE of CLT
CLT aims at the development of
COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
What is Communicative Competence?
Communicative competence includes the following aspects of language knowledge


Communicative
Competence
(Canale and Swain, 1980)
Earlier Views on
Language Learning
Activities in the CLT classroom

A CLT Syllabus
CLT especially
focuses on
Teacher's Role
in CLT
According to Canale and Swain (1980) communicative competence comprises 3 components:

1. grammatical competence: words and rules
2. sociolinguistic competence: appropriateness
3. strategic competence: appropriate use of communication strategies

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT)
Collaborative
Cooperative
Learner-Centred
Interactive
Content-based
...

Language Teaching Approaches
Task Based Language
Teaching (TBLT)
Cooperative/Collaborative/Interactive Learning
1. cooperative Learning:
classroom and curriculum are designed to foster collaboration and community
among learners (learner focus!)
deploys group work, pair work, project work etc.
pros: enhances self-regulation, discipline, self-esteem, intrinsic motivation

2. Collaborative
less structured and prescriptive than cooperative learning
a social constructivist approach to learning

3. Interactive
theoretically rooted in Krashen's "Interaction Hypothesis" (1985; 1997)
assumption: (peer) interaction (cognitive comparisons) necessarily leads
to an enhancement of communicative abilities though negotiation of meaning
authentic genuine language input and real-world contexts are provided
writing assignments are addressed to real audiences


Whole Language Education
Characteristics

origin: reading research, lost its initial impact
holistic approach, as it strives to teach language as a whole, not in bits and pieces
a literate society requires elaborate writing skills
takes a set of language learning approaches into account (e.g. cooperative, participatory, student/meaning-centered, social nature of language, authentic language usage)
Sum up
Content-Based Instruction (CBI)
Characteristics
content goals
(subject-matters) are achieved through language tasks and vice versa
interdisciplinary approach:
team teaching, teachers may become experts in two domains
often limited to usage with
intermediate and advanced learners
recent emergence of several new modes of CBI:
theme-based and sheltered content instruction, sustained-content l.t.
Characteristics of CLT

1. overall focus on all aspects of communication (grammar, semantics, sociolinguistic aspects, function...)
2. functional usage of language for meaningful purposes
3. Balancing the significance of accuracy for the sake of fluency
4. focus on authentic materials and
real-world contexts
Full transcript