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The War in the Pacific
Transcript of The War in the Pacific
Issued Feb. 19, 1942, two months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Presidential Executive Order 9066 made possible the removal of American citizens of Japanese descent from the West Coast
Ten concentration camps were established that would eventually hold more than 110,000 people
One of the largest camps was called Camp Minidoka and was located near Hunt, Idaho
U.S. and Japan
There was tension between the U.S. and japan because Japan had continuously expanded into China, South East Asia, the Philippines, and the U.S., as well as England and France, tried to halt the expansion
U.S. cut off trade with Japan
There were peace talks that were hopeful, but ultimately failed
In the middle of the 2 countries was Hawaii, a U.S. territory
Attack on Pearl Harbor
On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese commenced their attack on Pearl Harbor.
The objective was to cripple the U.S Pacific fleet so the Japanese could expand.
The Japanese did not know that the three most important targets, the U.S.S Enterprise, Lexington, and Saratoga, where not in Harbor that day.
The Japanese did not hit the navy yard, oil farms and the U.S submarine base, as they wrongly thought that the war would be over before they would feel the affects of these American assets.
2386 Americans died. 68 where civilian. 1139 where wounded, and 18 ships where destroyed.
The United States Declared war on Japan 24 hours later on December 8th, 1941.
Allied Strategy 1941-1942
No clear allied strategy directly after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Temporary plan- Defend Allied posessions.
This plan was not very affective, and the U.S would soon need to start an offensive strategy.
In 1943, the U.S and the Allies had garnered a strategic plan that would give them an edge in the Pacific War. It involved naval might
Japan which had a huge foothold in Southeast Asia, South Pacific, and China was stretched too thin.
The U.S would begin a series of amphibious assaults on the Pacific Islands.
Important Map Locations in the Pacific
Important Military Engagements of World War Two
Fought May 4-8, 1942.
It was one of the first Major Naval battles of World War 2.
It involved the Japanese Navy, and the naval and airfoces from the U.S and Australia.
First aircraft carrier engagement.
Neither side could actually see each other, or fired directly at each other.
Battle started because the Japanese wanted to occupy the port of Moresby in the SE Solomon Islands.
The U.S won a STRATEGIC victory in this battle, because it lead to the destruction of Japanese ships which would have aided in the Battle of Midway.
The War in the Pacific
By: Noah Seligson, Russell McKee, and Kyle Francesconi
Here are a few pictures to show the destruction that the attack on Pearl Harbor caused.
Destruction of the USS Arizona.
USS Shaw attacked during second wave of
The U.S.S Lexington Aircraft Carrier
Attack, followed by the sinking of the
USS West Virginia.
General pacific actions
#1 = Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
#2 = Sinking of the Prince of Wales and Repulse, December 10, 1941
#3 = Raids into the Indian Ocean, March 31 - April 9, 1942
#4 = Battle of the Coral Sea, May 7-8, 1942
#5 = Battle of Midway, June 4, 1942
#6 = Battle of the Komandorski Islands, March 26, 1943
#7 = Destruction of Truk, February 17-18, 1944
#8 = Battle of the Phillipine Sea, June 19-20, 1944
#9 = Sinking of Yamato, April 7, 1945
#10 = Final Destruction, July 24 & 28, 1945
#11 = Battle Of Iwo Jima, March 1945
J = Java Naval Battles, 1942
S = Solomon Islands Naval Battles, 1942-1943
G = Guadalcanal Naval Battles
L = Leyte Naval Battles, October-November, 1944
Battle of The Coral Sea
The Battle of Midway
Turning point of the war
Took place in May, 1942
Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto wanted to take over Midway Island, an island in the middle of the Pacific, which could be very valuable for the Japanese to attack the U.S. (especially Hawaii).
Douglas MacArthur was born on January 26, 1880, at the Little Rock Barracks in Arkansas
In 1903, MacArthur graduated at the top of his class from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point
In 1941, with expansionist Japan posing an increasing threat, Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and named commander of U.S. Army forces in the Far East
On December 8, 1941, his air force was destroyed in a surprise attack by the Japanese, who soon invaded the Philippines
MacArthur's forces retreated to the Bataan peninsula, where they struggled to survive
When he returned to the Philippines, he announced, “I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God, our forces stand again on Philippine soil.”
In April 1942, MacArthur was appointed supreme commander of Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific and awarded the Medal of Honor for his defense of the Philippines
U.S Lexington Exploding
Battle of Midway (continued)
Due to radio intercepts, U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz knew what the Japanese would do, and he was fully ready for the attack.
After losing four carriers, Yamamoto had to withdrawal, which created a major victory for the U.S.
In the end, the U.S. had 340 casualties, lost one aircraft carrier, and 145 aircrafts.
Japan had 3,057 casualties, lost 4 aircraft carriers, and 228 aircrafts.
Battle of Guadalcanal
Battle of Tarawa
Political Cartoon By: Dr. Seuss
Fought Nov 20-23, 1943.
Took place t the Tarawa Atoll in the central pacific.
6400 Japanese, Koreans, and Americans died.
First major American offensive in the central pacific.
It was the first amphibious assault met by serious opposition.
The 4500 Japanese fought to the last man.
The US had suffered similar casualties in other campaigns but this time the losses were incurred within the space of 76 hours.
Fought in the south Pacific November 1943- 21 August 1945.
Japanese had naval aircraft bases in the North, South, and East of the Island.
The U.S attacked with 126,000 rtoops over the course of the campaign.
1,243 U.S dead, 18,000 Japanese dead.
Bougainville ended just as the Empire surrendered.
After the success at Midway, the U.S. wanted to regain lost territory in the Pacific
Japanese wanted it to cut off Australian-American trade
U.S. wanted it so that they could have an allied territory near Australia
Battle of Peleliu
Fought September 15- November 27 1944.
The battle was expected to take 4 days but lasted two months due to heavy fortifications.
Highest casualty rate of any Pacific battle in the entire war.
By taking Peleliu an American Airfield could protect future American campaigns.
An American Victory!
A kamikaze was a type of battle strategy in World War Two used by Japanese pilots who flew into American warships in an effort to sink them
The Japanese said that the men that joined the kamikaze flight crew were given a guarantee of a place in heaven for sacrificing their life for the emperor
At Okinawa, the kamikazes did a great deal of damage – 21 ships sunk and 66 damaged
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima
Battle of Iwo Jima
Photographer Joe Rosenthal admitted that when he took a shot of five Marines and one Navy corpsman raising the U.S. flag on Iwo Jima’s Mt. Suribachi on 23 February 1945, he had no idea that he had captured something extraordinary.
He was setting up for a different shot when he spotted the group of men planting the flag and quickly took a snap without even looking through the camera
The photo would become famous overnight and go on to win the Pulitzer Prize
“Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima” is also often cited as being the most reproduced photograph in history
19 February- 26 March 1945.
U.S wanted to take the three airstrips to act as a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands.
THe Japanese had a dense network of bunkers, hidden artillary, and 11 miles of underground tunnels.
First Invason on Japanese home territory.
22,000 defending Japanese.
American Losses- 6,821 KIA, 19,217 wounded, one escort carrier sunk.
Japanese Losses- 18,844 killed, 216 POW, 3,000 hiding.
Battle of Okinawa
Largest amphibiuos assault in the war.
Mid April 1945- Mid June 1945.
U.S wanted to U.S Okinawa as a base to invade mainland Japan.
Highest number of casualties in the entire Pacific War.
77,166 Japanese soldiers where killed or committed suicide!
Americans lost 14,009 soldiers with a combined totla of 65,000 casualties.
149,193 local civilians where killed or committed suicide!
Would provide an alley to invade mainland Japan.
Little Boy & Fat Man
Before the atomic bomb was unleashed, the U.S had dropped hundreds of thousands of warning pamphlets on Japan to warn them that fire "Will rain from the skies. Evacuate your cities and surrender. End this useless war"
Japanese Strategy 1941-1942
The Atomic Bombs
On July 2, 1941, the Imperial Conference decided to press the Japanese advance southward even at the risk of war with Great Britain and the United States
On July 26, Japanese forces began to occupy bases in southern Indochina
Then came December 7, 1941, the attack on Pearl Harbor
Since peace with the United States seemed impossible Japan decided they would now wage war not only against the United States but also against Great Britain
The evolving Japanese military strategy was based on the peculiar geography of the Pacific Ocean and on the relative weakness and unpreparedness of the Allied military presence in the ocean
If successful in their campaigns, the Japanese planned to establish a strongly fortified defensive perimeter extending from Burma in the west to the southern rim of the Dutch East Indies, but they ultimately failed
Overall, the Japanese was on the offensive as they tried to establish a defense because they had to fight a war with more than one country
The Japanese did not respond.
On August 6, 1945 80,000 people instantly vaporized into white silhuottes in Hiroshima as Little Boy basked the entire region in radioactive white light.
20,000 soldiers died.
Another 70,000 where injured.
Japan still did not surrender.
On August 9, 1945, Fat Man exploded in Nagasaki.
Even though fat man was more powerful, the same amount of people, 80,000, died in the blast.
Japan surrendered 9/2/1945.
A main land invasion would have cost 1.7- 4 million American casualties with 800,000 fatalities.
The Japanese would have had 5-10 million
The atomic bombs killed so
many! Why didn't we invade
Navajo Code Talkers
The Navajo Indians were used as code talker, because they spoke a language that only the Navajo knew. They where used by the Marine Corps to transmit secret tactical messages. They would send info, call in airstrikes, and set up ambushes. They helped lead the U.S to many victories.
A resident or Raritan NJ, John Basilone with the help of a few other marines, held of 3,000 Japanese soldiers. He fought for two days straight, and soon only he and two others were left standing. Supplies were running low, so by himself he fought his way through the Japanese line to resupply his machine gun unit. At the end of the second day, the machine gun ran out of ammo, and he held of wave after wave of Japanese with only his 45. pistol. By the end of the skirmish, he had almost completely destroyed the oncoming force of 3,000 Japanese soldiers. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions. He requested to go back to battle, and again almost by himself, he helped spearhead the Iwo Jima invasion. Soon after he was killed by mortar shrapnel.
Bushido Code and Japanese Brutality
Bushido code is an ancient code dating back to the Samurai. It means "Warrior's Code" and it is the Japanese form of chivalry. The Japanese would fight to the death, had little mercy, and had to honor their family by going into battle. This made for a brutal enemy that would attack with bonsai charges and kamikazis. Most POW camps where just as if not worse than many concentration camps in Germany, and as if that isn't bad enough; in the Philippines they would throw babies into the air and catch them on their bayonets!
The Philippines came under Japanese control in 1941.
October 20, 1944- August 15, 1945
Fought to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese.
Philippine guerrillas helped the U.S navigate the land.
The Philippine people were aided by the U.S for several years before the initial U.S invasion.
The Philippines would prove to be a staging point to cover the South China Sea.