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WBHS - Jess Gibson
Transcript of WBHS - Jess Gibson
Unit: G322: Key Media Concepts
Section B: Institutions and Audiences Successful UK Films Remember that it is worth 50% of the exam and the exam is 50% of the year.
It is marked out of 50.
20 marks for analysis / argument / explanation
20 marks for examples
10 marks for terminology 40 = A
35 = B
30 = C
25 = D
20 = E
19- U Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services to national audiences. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Candidates must focus on one area:
Magazines Distribution - Distribution is the highly competitive business of launching and sustaining films in the market place.
Like other forms of entertainment, the film business is product-driven: the films themselves are the reason why most people buy cinema tickets.
UK film distributors alone spend around £300 million a year on bringing new releases to market, and building awareness and interest among audiences. It’s a fast-moving, highly competitive, high-stakes business. What do distributors do? Arrange screens for the film to be shown on
They check printing and arrange physical delivery of the film to the exhibitor
Distributors create mainstream (above the line) adverts such as posters, newspaper and magazine advertisements, television commercials, trailers, etc.
They also create other types of adverts
including below the line advertising such
as film stars giving interviews in glossy
magazines. Distributors of films Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, MARKETING and EXCHANGE as they relate to contemporary media institutions. It’s probably fair to say that there is a “natural” market and also a created one for films. teenagers are likely to enjoy fast-paced films with young, attractive actors so this need is met in PRODUCTION. We look at this today.
However, the need is then created in DISTRIBUTION by promoting the film as a cool must-see. Production It’s probably fair to say that there is a “natural” market
and also a created one for films. teenagers are likely to
enjoy fast-paced films with young, attractive actors so this
need is met in PRODUCTION. However, the need is then created
in DISTRIBUTION by promoting the film as a cool must-see.
Eg The Social Network Remember the key issues... New technologies in Production... 1. Film makers can use CGI to more and more effect than ever before. 2. Directed by the award winning promo duo Max Giwa and Dania Pasquini and written by Jane English, StreetDance 3D will be filmed using the latest 3-D technology, making it the first British movie to be shot in 3-D. New technologies in Distribution... Distribution is:
the process of launching a film into the market place and sustaining public interest in the film.
World-wide distribution is dominated by US companies such as Paramount, Warner, and Universal.
Distributors may be involved in a film in any or all of the following three ways:
It may invest in the film’s production.
The distributor might buy the rights to the film once it is made.
If the distributor is part of a larger organization that has made the film, then it will automatically distribute films made by the parent company. Positioning: Involves how and when the film should be released. Elements to be considered are the time of year, other film releases and the target audience.
Circulation: how many copies of the film should be circulated to Cinemas? Each print costs around £1000. The distributor should decide whether the film requires a ‘saturation release’ (700-1000 prints) or an ‘art-house release’ (around 20 prints)
Release: Timing is crucial. School holidays are a prime time within the year for the release of blockbusters. If the film is a potential award winner, then it will be released during the traditional season of awards competition: January to March. Competition must also be considered.
Marketing: Can often cost as much as making the film!!! Main aim is to create a ‘must see’ feeling about the film. Word-of-mouth is a powerful marketing aid for a film.
Posters: Contain standard elements that are used to sell the idea of a film to the potential viewer
Trailers: Need to present a number of key elements to the audience.
Media Advertising: Using other media texts to promote the film.
Promotions: Big films often have tie-in promotion campaigns. E.G. toys given away in fast food outlets, displays in shop windows.
Press Junkets: The endless short interviews given to the members of the press.
Festivals Working Title Working Title are owned by Universal. What have you learned about them today?
Universal help fund Working Title films. Working Title have some independence –
they can greenlight their own films up to a budget of £25m/$35m.
If they require a bigger budget then this has to be done in conjunction with Universal. Top films -
Shaun of the Dead BBC Films BBC Films are the film making arm of BBC
They aim to produce 8 films per year
They are funded through the tax-payer.
The BBC charges a license fee of£145.50
per household, per year.
There are approx 24m households in UK
145x24000000 = 3,480,000000 (3.5bn) Top films -
In the loop
Jane Eyre Film 4 Channel 4 funds and owns Film4
In 2006 it moved from a pay TV to a free to air station, so lost quite a lot of potential funding then. However, Film4 was so unsuccessful as a pay TV station that the loss was purely theoretical to the film production company.
In 2010 it Channel 4 upped funding of Film4 by 20% to £10m per year. This roughly equates to £2m per year, so partnerships are still crucial. Top films -
Trainspotting Warp films is an independent film production company which aims to mirror the ethos of its partner music label Warp records.
Warp films was set up in 1999 with funding from NESTA. The National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts (NESTA) established by an Act of Parliament in 1998, helps maximise the UK's creative and innovative potential.
NESTA provided early-stage funding to Warp films. Their debut project won a BAFTA and they have gone on to create a niche brand of short films. Since their NESTA award, the company has been awarded £4.5 million from the UK Film Council, Film Four and regional funding bodies to introduce the next wave of cutting-edge British filmmakers. Top Films -
This is England
Tyrannosaur Warp Cross Media Convergence ‘Cross-media’ means ‘across various forms of media’, such as print, moving image, internet etc. Thus cross-media convergence refers to a strategy (usually in distribution) that crosses various media.
Either a company will use alternative forms of media to distribute and market films
Or the product (film) itself will enter an alternative form e.g. an online game. Viral Marketing This is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages
people to pass along a marketing message (and spread it like a virus).
Viral marketing depends on a high pass-along rate from person to person.
If a large percentage of recipients forward something to a large number of friends,
the overall growth snowballs very quickly. If the pass-along numbers get too low,
the overall growth quickly fizzles. http://whysoserious.com/ Vivendi Universal
As well as owning phone companies and 60 publishing houses, Vivendi Universal owns the Cineplex and Odeon cinema chains, mp3.com, Canal (a French subscription channel) and Universal Records. Universal also have exclusive distribution rights to Working Title films and their soundtracks.
They can distribute, market and exchange films through the 13 cable channels which they own (and also in their entertainment parks)
Universal also have a partnership with Apple via i-tunes so they can use video ipod to promote and exchange their films. The Last King of Scotland The marketing for ‘The Last King of Scotland’ used cross-media convergence in order to attract a larger and broader audience:
The director and its two main stars conducted interviews which were shown on TV and are now available on youtube.
Radio adverts promoted the film, and Film4 ran features in addition to trailers. The posters (one of which was altered specifically for a British audience,
promoting its British stars more than the Whitaker dominance of the US
marketing) and billboards advertising the product were popular. USA UK The posters contained reviews from both newspapers and specific film magazines, covering print media too. They were accompanied by an interesting development as the book cover, for the novel on which the film is based, was altered to promote the film.
So print media, the internet, television and radio have all been involved in the distribution of this film. Trainspotting Trainspotting was marketing by Polygram who knew that the film would appeal to clubbers and ravers so targeted these through the soundtrack and ‘Born Slippy’.
Trainspotting was marketed as a brand in its own right using posters for both US and UK audiences (although the film was shown with subtitles in the US).
The original novel was reprinted with the film poster on the front cover. USA UK Other Forms of Cross Media Convergence Production- WARP using some songs from WARP records in their soundtracks.
BBC and Film4 Exhibiting their films on their TV channels.
Social networking e.g. Facebook campaigns and viral marketing to advertise films.
Love Film and Youtube for marketing and exchange. Reviews
(pre and post release)
Interviews (in different media)
Blogs/fan base websites
Use of ‘talent’ to market the release of the film
Press stories before the release of the film