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Applications of Nuclear Chemistry
Transcript of Applications of Nuclear Chemistry
(last review) positron
(new stuff) electron capture
(another new thing) emission of 2 protons
and 2 neutrons
(a helium nucleus) most damaging
can easily stop with paper A neutron brakes into a proton and an electron.
Electron is emitted somewhat damaging
stoped with wood, metal Electromagnetic Wave,
highest frequency wave,
highest energy slightly damaging
stoped by thick lead
or very thick cement A proton brakes into a neutron and a possitive elcectron (anti-electron) hardly any penatration power
doesn't get far before hitting and electron canceling out steals an electron from its shell and combines it with a proton in the nucleus to make a neurton does the same thing as Positron emission; lower the # of protons and keeping a constant mass Medicine Energy Weapons of War Nuclear Power Fission Reactors Radio-Tracers Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy When a radioactive element such as Technitium is bonded with an element such as Phosphourus and then injested by the patient. Phosphourus is then attracted to infections, tumors and even bone cancer. The compounds location is located by the radiation emission. Fusion Reactors How they work pros cons Atom Bomb Hydrogen Bomb Damaging Radiation Dose in rems/ /Physiological Effect
0-25/ /No effect is observed.
26-50/ /A decrease in white blood cells is observed.
51-100/ /Lesions occur and white blood cell loss is significant.
101-200/ /Nausea and loss of hair occur.
201-500/ /Ulcers and hemorrhaging occur.
over 500/ /Death The Danger Uses the fission of Uranium-235 atoms to create mass amounts of heat. Uses the Fussion of Hydrogen-2 and Hydrogen-3 into Helium atoms creates a lot more heat energy
needs very high temps to start
no harmful wastes
easier fuel must monotor control rods carefully, can overheat meltdowns Harmful wastes must be stored for thousands of years
Uranium-235 must be enriched and is a limited resource has no kind of water or air polution
is a clean alterntive to burning fossil fuels Uses the same fission of Uranium-235 to create a huge explosion.
first split U-235 is used to split other U-235 atoms + any and all atoms around
all happens within a fraction of a second uses the fussion of Hydrogen to Helium to make an even BIGGER explosion.
also needs huge amounts of heat to set off, often needs an atom bomb to start
U-235 + 1n=Ba140 + Kr93 + 3n + 19.54TJ/mol H2 + H3= He4 + 1n + 7.22TJ/mol Carbon Dating Using a controlled beam of x-rays and aiming it at a cancerous area or a tumor in order to kill it off. inserting a small chip or pellet of a slightly radioactive isotope directly into a tumor or cancerous region while alive, all living organisms maintain a fairly constant concentration of carbon14.
After death, carbon 14 decays is eliminated from the body half life of 5730 years
is accurate up to the age of 10,000
usually accurate within a few 100 years