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Major insect orders

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Josh Graves

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Major insect orders

Lepidoptera This order includes moths and butterflies
They have scales, which are more like flat hairs.
There larva are called caterpillars.
They can be found anywhere, except Antarctica.
Most of the Lepidoptera can be found in the tropics.
North America has over 700 butterflies and over 11,000 moths.
The head is where many sensing organs and mouth parts can be found.
Like adults, larvae have a tough head. Major Insect Orders Odonata includes dragonflies and damsflies
Over 5,900 species have been included in this order.
This order has been grouped with mayflies and other extinct orders.
The largest living odonate is the Central American helicopter damselfly.
The damsefly, with a body length of 117 mm, and wing span of 160 mm.
Some characteristics of these insects have, is a large round head, two pairs of long, transparent wings, and long abdomens..
The combination of wing stiffness and wing mass can reduce the energy of flying.
Another pterostigma found with other insects, are bees. Odonata Orthoptera Orthoptera includes grasshoppers, crickets, and locusts. Some insects in this order can make sound by rubbing their wings against their legs.
The ear is located at the front of it's head.
These organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals
Grasshoppers fold their wings, putting them in the group Neoptera.
They have mandibulate mouthparts and large eyes.
They have long legs for jumping.
The first and third segments of the body are larger. Hemiptera Hemiptera is the order known as "true bugs".
Contains approximately 50,000-80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthopper and leafhoppers as well as others. contain mouthparts that have evolved into a proboscis which is covered in a beak like structure.
beak like structure is called a rostrum and is capable of piercing plant tissues to suck out the liquids
the forewings are either completely membranous or partially hardened
wings are held flat on the back with ends overlapping
if hindwings are present, they are completely membranous and much shorter than the forewings
the antennae are usually segmented into five parts
legs are up to three segments long Coleoptera This order contains the insects that are beetles. this order includes the most species, about 25% of all known life
almost 40% of insects are beetles
most beetles have two pairs of wings
front pair of wings is hardened
beetles are found in all habitats, except marine and polar regions
have a hard exoskeleton, especially on their forewings
exoskeleton is made of multiple "plates" that makes it possible to keep flexibility while also having a good defense Diptera This order contains true flies. usually have short, streamlined bodies
typically has two pairs of wings (flight wings and halteres)
the thorax contains the flight wings and flight muscles
the halteres are on the third segment (metathorax) and help to balance the fly while it is flying
eat only liquid foods or very fine foods (like pollen)
antennae are very short to help reduce lag while flying
have a mobile head, and in most cases, have large compound eyes. Hymenoptera one of the largest orders of insects: contains wasps, bees, and ants. over 130,000 species
name refers to the heavy wings
usually have two pairs of wings
mouthparts are adapted to chewing
contain "stingers" which are used to inject venom to paralyze prey, although may be used as defense in wasps and bees.
larvae resembles maggots
several of the species are a parasitoid as larvae--adults inject the eggs into a paralyzed host. Characteristics of Insects chitinous exoslkeleton
a three part body (head, thorax, abdomen)
three pairs of jointed legs
compound eyes
one pair of antennae Danaus plexippus Family Nymphalidae
wings are an easily recognizable orange and black
famous for southward migration from Canada to Mexico Opodiphthera eucalypti Emperor gum moth can stay in cocoon from two to five years in weather conditions are right
very large, has wing span from 120-150 mm.
life span is only a few weeks as an adult, during which they do not eat. They rely only on the energy they stored as a caterpillar. Monarch Butterfly Hemicordulia tau Tau emerald dragonfly family Corduliidae
some of the fastest insects in the world
eat mosquitoes and other small insects Ischnura heterosticta Common Bluetail Damselfly found near still bodies of water
undergo incomplete metamorphosis
lays eggs in water Metrioptera roeseli European bush-cricket between 13-26 mm long
family Tettigoniidae
lays eggs in plant stems Nomadacris septemfasciata Red Locust called the Criquet nomade in French due to nomadic movements
between 60-70 mm long
grains are the primary food source Tibicen linnei Annual Cicada transparent, veined wings
around 2500 species around the world
lay eggs deep in branches Pyrops candelaria Lantern bug remarkably resembles leaves
plant feeders, though not considered a pest
will "hop" for fast transportation like grasshoppers, but tends to walk slowly so it doesnt attract attention Dung Beetle Scarabaeus laticollis Some species of dung beetle also display a form of parental care.
Dung beetles collect animal "dung."
Usually it's the male that rolls the dung ball. the adults can be separated from the other scarabs by the combination of the epipleuron.
The group is also called fruit and flower chafers, flower beetles and flower scarabs.
There are about 4,000 species. Flesh Fly Sarcophaga bercaea they are kind of like hatched maggots instead of eggs.
Some flesh fly larvae are internal parasites of other insects.
The maggots may be born on dung, decaying material, or open wounds on an animal. Anthomyiid fly
Delia radicum This contains about 300–340 species.
The larvae of this specific Delia are mainly phytophagous.
They've been found in various cereal crops and grasses. Giant Honey Bee Apis dorsata Their nests are mostly built in exposed places off the ground.
It is a defensive bee and has never been domesticated.
Bees in the outer layer thrust their abdomens ninety degrees in an upward direction and shake them in a synchronous way. This is used as a defense mechanism.
Parasitic Wasp peristenus digoneutis Many of them are beneficial to humans because they control populations of agricultural pests.
They are primarily parasitoids of other animals, mostly other arthropods.
They lay eggs directly into the body of the host.
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