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PC Support: Standard 16

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Melinda Stonitsch

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of PC Support: Standard 16

PC Support:Standard 16 By: Melinda Stonitsch Storage Devices and Backup Media Topics: FDD
Optical Drives
Removable Storage What is a FDD? FDD stands for Floppy Disk Drive. It is used for writing and reading information to and from the Floppy Disk An advantage to the FDD is that it is very portable.
A disadvantage to the FDD would be the Limited Storage Compacity Types of Floppy Formats There are 5 types: DD= Double Density
HD= High Density
ED= Extended Density What is HDD? HDD stands for Hard Disk Drive.
It is used for permanent and quick
It contains three main components:
-Hard Disk
- Host Adapter HDD What is it used for? The HDD is used for permanent and quick storage There are three critical components Controller
Controls the drive
Controller chip controls how the drive operates, it sends signals to various motors in the disk and receives signals from the sensors in the drive
Hard disk
Physical storage medium
Store information on platters
Host adapter
The translator
Converts signals form the hard drive and controller to signals the computer can understand. There are three critical components of a HD
Hard Disk
Host Adapter Critical Components Types of Hard Drives Magnetic: Solid State Drives
-Moving Parts -No moving parts
-Less Reliable -USB Technology
-Higher Storage Compacity -More Reliable
-Lower Storage Compacity Optical Drives -CD
-Blu-Ray Removable Storage Tape Backup Devices
Solid State
External CD-RW and hard drive
Hot swappable devices and non-hot swappable devices Tape Backup Device An older form of removable storage
Can be internally or externally installed
Holds more data than any other medium Solid States Thumb Drive
SD Card Thumb Drives Uses the USB interface which takes advantage of the plug and play feature.
Replacement for the floppy disk, Zip, and Jazz SD Cards Stands for Secure Digital
One of the smallest forms of data storage
Used in many types of current technologies Use the USB
Very useful for some laptops, desktops and all netbooks External CD-RW and Hard Drive Hot swappable devices and non-hot swappable devices Hot swappable devices
Devices can be inserted and removed when the system is powered on.
Non-hot swappable devices
Thumb drives and external drives
You need use the Safely Remove Hardware utility
Need to have your power shut off before you insert or remove
Keyboard or mouse Motherboard Components,Types, and Features 1. Keyboard Connector
2. USB
3. Parallel Port
4. CPU Chip
5. RAM Slots
6. Floppy Controller
7. IDE Controller
8. PCI Slots
9. ISA Slots
10. CMOS Battery
11. AGP Slot
12. CPU Slot
13. Power Supply Keyboard Connector All PCs have a keyboard connector. The oldest
(but still common) is a special DIN. The AT-style keyboard connector is quickly disappearing, being replaced by the smaller mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector. USB The USB port is used as a general purpose connection for your PC. You can find many devices that connects through the USB such as a Keyboard, Camera, Mice, Scanner, and even printers Parallel Port Most printers use this port. Parallel port carry data on more than one wire, as opposed to the serial port, which uses only one wire. Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector. Parallel ports are directly supported by the motherboard through a direct connection or through a dangle. CPU Chip The central processing unit (also called the microprocessor) performs all the calculations that take place inside a PC. CPU s come in variety of shapes and sizes.
Modern CPU s generate a lot of heat and needs a cooling fan or heat sink. The cooling device (such as a cooling fan) is removable, although some CPU manufactures sell the CPU with a fan permanently attached. RAM The RAM stores programs and data currently being used by the CPU. RAM is measured in units called bytes. RAM has been packaged in many different ways. The most current package is called a 168-pin DIMM (Dual Inline Memory module). Floppy Controller The floppy drive connects to the computer with a 34-pin ribbon cable, which in turn connects to the motherboard. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the floppy drive. IDE Controller The IDE Controller is responsible for controlling the hard drive PCI Slot the standard architecture of the Expansion bus. Motherboard may contain some slots to connect ISA compatible cards. CMOS Battery To provide CMOS with the power when the computer is turned off all motherboards comes with a battery. These batteries mount on the motherboard in one of three ways: the obsolete external battery, the most common onboard battery, and built-in battery. AGP Slot A brown slot that looks like it is the PCI slot but is smaller. This is used for advanced graphics. CPU Slot Power Supply Types Laptop Power Supplies AC Adapters

DC Adapters

Inverters AC Adapters: Laptops and other DC devices generally have two common characteristics: the ability of the device to run on laptop batteries and the presence of a small power “brick” outside the device that powers it. They cannot be used with AC power unless the power is “converted” before use. Their power "bricks" are really DC power supplies that convert the AC power from the wall socket into the DC power required for the device. They are often called AC Adapters or chargers (because of their function of charging the internal laptop battery), and have an electric plug for the wall socket on one end and a special connector for plugging into the laptop or other device on the other end. DC Adapters Auto laptop batteries, in-flight power systems and solar power systems are common sources of DC power. Although they produce the DC power used by laptops and other DC power devices, they generally produce voltage that is below what is required by many such DC devices. (For example auto laptop batteries usually produce 12V, which is below the voltage required by most laptops.) Thus DC adapters are necessary to adapt the voltage coming from the power source to the voltage that is required by the laptop or other DC device. They have a DC input plug such as a cigarette lighter plug on one end and a special connector for plugging into the laptop or other device on the other end. Inverters Inverters are used to change DC power into AC power for use by all electric appliances and electronics. This is generally done by plugging the inverter into the DC source (typically a cigarette lighter receptacle) and providing in the body of the inverter one or more standard household electric sockets. The advantage of an inverter is that it can be used to provide power for ANY device because it is basically supplying a standard AC socket. The disadvantages of an inverter are that the power conversion process is not as efficient as the DC adapter process and that as a rule inverters are larger and heavier than DC adapters. PC Power Supply AT Power Supply An AT power supply is what was used for most older computers. This type of power supply powered the first personal computers made by IBM, and the standard was adopted for other manufacturers as well. Specifically, it powered all AT and AT-compatible motherboards. ATX Power Supply An ATX power supply has more outputs that connect to an ATX-compatible motherboard. Whereas the AT power supply only had 8 outputs, the ATX power supply uses either 20 or 24 outputs. Most ATX power supplies take into account that an ATX motherboard can contain either 20 or 24 outputs, so the extra 4 outputs are often split out as a separate plug that will only fit one way into a 24 output motherboard connector. Characteristics of CPUs Size CPUs are very small. They would be able to fit
in your hand. However, some CPUs are bigger than others.
For example: An Intel Atom Processor is much smaller than the Intel Xeon processor.

Other than the size, the difference between the two is that the Intel Atom is less powerful than the Intel Xeon. Thermal Surface The CPU is covered in a thermal surface, and is colored silver. It is a flat surface, and used to keep the CPU cool along with a CPU cooler. Electrostatic Sensitivity Computer processors are extremely sensitive to static electricity. The pins on the bottom of the processor are like open circuits that transmit data and electricity directly to the CPU cores. When an uncontrolled burst of static electricity is transmitted through the CPU pins and reaches the processor, it can fry the CPU cores, rendering the processor useless. Cooling methods and devices PC Cooling Methods Passive Air Cooling Passive Air Cooling is when a thermally conductive metal structure or heat sink draws away heat, and allowing heat to dissipate into the air surrounding the metal. Active Air Cooling Active air cooling is cooling that involves creating airflow with fans to move hot air away from computer components. Water Cooling Water cooling uses a pump to force a mixture of water and coolant though tubes that run through a computer. Heat sinks: a heat sink is an object that disperses heat from another object Computer Fan: A computer fan is any fan inside, or attached to, a computer case used for active cooling, and may refer to fans that draw cooler air into the case from the outside, expel warm air from inside, or move air across a heatsink to cool a particular component. Types
-Dynamic Random Access Memory-Needs refreshing
-Static Random Access Memory-Frequently used in processors-Does not need refreshing-More expensive and faster than DRAM
-Synchronized Dynamic Random Access MemoryRuns on clock speeds-3.3 volts-168 pins
-Double data rate is a type of SDRAM in which data is sent on both the rise and fall of the clock cycle.-Twice as fast as SDRAM-Also refered to as "Double Pumping"
-2.5 volts-184 pins
-Twice as fast as DDR-240 pin DIMM
-Four times as fast as DDR-240 pin DIMM
-Designed by Rambus, Inc.-Modules known as RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory Module)-Current use is limited-Equipped with heat shields-Runs at a multiplier of clock speed-Reads data on both rise and fall of clock cycle-184 pins
Installed in pairs
Requires a module called CRIMM for open slots

Parity vs. Non-parity
Uses an additional chip for parity
Higher cost due to additional chips
Cannot correct, but can detect errors

Has fewer chips
Does not need to calculate parity
Non-parity systems have no fault tolerance

ECC vs. non-ECC
What's the Difference? (Video by CrucialMemory)

Error Correcting Code
Capable of detecting and correcting errors
Used in high-end systems
Motherboard must support ECC

Is not capable of correcting errors

Single sided vs. double sided
Refers to memory ranks or groupings
Not a reference to the physical sides of memory modules

Single sided
Refers to a single rank of chips in which the computer can access all at once.

Double sided
A type of memory in which its chips are divided into two ranks
Only one rank can be accessed at a time
Access must switch from one rank to the other and back again

Single channel vs. dual channel

Single channel
Memory controller can only access one module at a time

Dual channel
Requires a motherboard capable of dual-channel technology
Requires two or more memory modules
Best to use identical pairs of memory modules
Memory banks are typically color-coded

100 MHz clock speed
168-pin DIMM form factor
144-pin SO-DIMM for laptops
3.3 volts

133 MHz clock speed
168-pin DIMM form factor
168-pin SO-DIMM for laptops
3.3 volts

166 MHz clock speed
184-pin DIMM form factor
200-pin SO DIMMS or 172-pin micro-DIMMS for laptops
3.3 volts

200 MHz clock speed
184-pin DIMM form factor
200-pin SO DIMMS or 172-pin micro-DIMMS for laptops

200 MHz clock speed
240-pin DIMM form factor
204-pin SO DIMM for laptops
1.5 volts

133 MHz clock speed
240-pin DIMM form factor Different Display Devices Projectors, CRT, and LCD
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