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Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields

A consequence map that talks about the electric, magnetic and gravitational fields.
by

Harranesh Puvanendran

on 4 May 2011

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Transcript of Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields

Fields Magnetic Electric Gravitational Coulomb's Law The force between two point charges is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance and directly proportional to the
product of the charges. Point Charge An electrically charged entity that takes up a small part of space Coulomb's
Law + Magnitude of the electric force
Coulomb's constant
Magnitudes of sphere charges
Distance between centres of charged spheres Applies when...:
Charges on the two spheres are very small
The two spheres are small compared to the distance between them Electric Fields Electrophoresis The field theory explains the interactions between bodies or particles in terms of fields There are many types of fields.This concept map will cover the three main types: Electric, Gravitational, and Magnetic A field extending outwards in all directions from a charged particle A field of force produced by the gravitational force of mass A field of force that exists around a magnetic object or an electrical current Action-At-A-Distance Force Electric Potential Inductive Loop Traffic Wire Field of Force A region of space that exists when a suitable objest placed at any point in the field experiences a force Therefore, a charged object creates an electric field around itself because another charged object is placed within this field, experiencing a force of attraction/repulsion. Faraday's
Electric Force
Explanation A chargedobject sends out an electric field into space; another charge detects this field when engulfed in it and acts accordingly Electric Field The electric field at any point is defined as the electric force per unit positive charge and is a vector quantity. Electric force
Magnitude of the electric force
Magnitudes of sphere charge Drawing Electric Fields Electric field lines start (diverge) from positive charges and end (converge) at negative charges Defined The value, in volts, of potential energy per unit positive charge; 1V =1J/C Universal Law of Gravitation As the scientist watched an apple from a tree, he concluded that
according to his second law (Newton's Second Law), a force must
have been acting on the apple to result in acceleration Gravitation Law Sir Issac Newton Every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass
along the centres of the two objects that is proportional to the
product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square
of the seperation between the two objects Gravitational Force
Universal Gravitational Constant
Masses of the two objects
Distance between centres of the objects Apple falling on
Newton's Head Gravitational Field Concept Rather than finding the force between two objects (Universal Gravitation Equation), it can be said that an object holds it's own gravitational field around itself Gravitational Force Mass of the object Units: Gravitational field The diagram illustrates the direction at which an object would travel if it were to enter the earth's gravitational field Force Vectors Force Vectors Force Vectors Force Vectors Force Vectors Gravitational Potential Energy Defined Gravitational potential energy can be defined as the energy an object holds because of it's position in a gravitational field. Zero G.P.E A gravitational potential energy of zerois essentially a scenario in which the two measured masses are so apart from each other that they do not experience a force of gravity between each other. This concept is useful in determing how much energy is required to send an object from one point to another in reference to the earths force of gravity Purpose The minimum speed required to send a mass (object), m, from the surface of the mass (eg. planet), M, just to escape the gravitational force of M. Escape
Speed The minimum kinetic energy required to send a mass (object), m, from the surface of the mass (eg. planet), M, just to escape the gravitational force of M. Escape
Energy Domain Theory of Mangetism Defined It is a theory that explains how materials can be magnetized in terms of tiny
regions Right Hand Rule (Magnetism) Moving electric charges produces a magnetic field Right Hand Rule Depending on the scenario, the right hand rule can be applied to
identify the direction of the curent and the direction of the magnetic
field lines. Natural Magnetism The image illustrates iron fillings accumulating
around specific regions of the magnet. This is called
the magnetic field. The ends of the magnet where the
iorn fillings have accumulated the most are called poles. Law of Magnetic Poles Opposite magnetic poles attract, similar magnetic poles repel. Depicts the expected behavior of multiple compasses placed around a bar magnet. The neelds will line up with the magnetic field. Although iron fillings do not show this, it is common knowledge that the magnetic field lines emerge from the north side of the magnet and merge into the south side. Ferromagnetic Material Unmagnetized
Random alignment of domains, each cancelling out each others magnetic effect Ferromagnetic
Material Materials/substances like iron, nickel, and cobalt that can become
magnetized under special circumstances Ferromagnetic Material Magnetized
Parallel alignement of domains in the same direction, supporting each others magnetic effect Explained Properties A needle rubbed in one direction with a strong magnet
magnetizes the domains with the field Breaking a magnet in half does not seperate the north and
south poles. The broken pieces have their own north and
south poles Heating or dropping a magnet may cause it to lose it's
magnetization. A strong magnetic field can reverse the
magnetism in a bar magnet Depending on the scenario, the right hand rule can be applied to
identify the direction of the curent and the direction of the magnetic
field lines. Straight Conductor Looped Conductor Coiled Conductor Curl your finger's (excluding the thumb) and stick out your thumb.
The thumb is the direction in which the current is travelling and the
direction of your other fingers is the direction of the magnetic field
lines. Curl your finger's (excluding the thumb) and stick out your thumb as
if you were holding a hoola hoop.The thumb is the direction in which the
current is travelling and the direction of your other fingers is the direction
of the magnetic field lines. Curl your finger's (excluding the thumb) and stick out your thumb as
if you were showing a thumb's up. As you follow the current in the coiled conductor, the direction of your other fingers is the direction of the current and the direction of the thumb is the direction in which the magnetic field lines are travelling. Principle of Electromagnetism Field Lines Cannot Cross Each Other!!!!! Measuring Magnetic Fields The magnitude of the magnetic force on a charged particle is: Directly proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field, velosity and the charge of the particle Dependent on the angle of the magnetic field and velocity Force is a maximum when the angle is 90 degrees (particle moving
perpendicular to the field lines) The force has vanished when the angle is 0 or 180 degree (particle
moving parallel to the field lines) Magnitude of the force on the moving charged particles (N) Amount of charge on moving particle (C) Magnitude of velocity on moving particle (m/s) Magnitude of magnetic field strength (T) Angle between Vand B (degrees) Charged Particles in Electric
Fields A charged particle in a uniform electric field moves with uniform acceleration TIME FOR PHYSICS
ARE YOU READY? Maglev Trains MHD Propulsion Unit From conservation principles, any changes to a particle's kinetic energy result from corresponding changes to its electric potential energy (when moving in any electric field and ignoring any gravitational effects). Electrostatic Precipitators Electrocardiography Tides Spacecraft Launch Benefits? Benefits Disadvantages Have you ever been at a traffic light that seems to change as soon as you pull up, as though as it saw you coming? Inductive loop is a term used to describe an electromagnetic communication and detection system. The device relies on the fact that a moving magnet will induce an electrical current in a nearby conducting wire. The device is made up of three distinct components: a loop, a loop extension and a detector. The detector powers the loop through the loop extension, creating a magnetic field in the loop area. The loop therefore “resonates” at a certain frequency (base frequency) which the detector monitors. When a large metal object, like a car, enters the loop, it results in a larger resonant frequency. The detector detects this change in frequency and immediately shuts the loop off. This action causes the traffic lights to switch cycles and turn green for you. Once the large metal object leaves the loop, the detector reinitiates power to the loop and the base frequency is once again established. This device is then functional until the loop is in contact with another large metal object. The application of these revolutionary devices will be an asset to the ever growing traffic on our local roads Less time can be spent at an intersection, thereby reducing pollution emitted by idling cars significantly in a yearly count The number of car accidents due to distressed drivers manoeuvring illegally around dysfunctional traffic lights would be significantly reduced This is a cost effective way of reducing traffic ingestion with low energy consumption Money can be saved by the government by avoiding sending traffic analyzers to analyze timed intersections Maglev is short for magnetic levitation, a type of high speed rail application in which a train is suspended on a magnetic cushion above a magnetized track. To levitate a stationary maglev train car, the metal coils lining the track are induced with electricity, producing a magnetic field. This repels the large magnets under the cars, levitating it between 0.39 and 3.93 inches above the track. The basic concept used in magnetic levitation is that similar poles repel and opposite poles attract. The maglev system consists of three components: a large electrical power source, metal coils lining the track and significantly large guidance magnets attached to the bottom of the train. Once the train is levitated, power to metal coils are applied in a unique way as to produce a magnetic field that propels the train forward. This is done by consistently producing electric fields that attract the front of the train and repel the back of the train, alternating throughout the duration of the travel. When it is necessary to come to a stop, the polarity of the metal coils is reversed so that the front of the maglev cars experiences repulsion and the back experience attraction. The use of magnetism and electricity instead of fossil burning conventional trains can reduce the amount of pollution emitted by the transportation sector There is little sound pollution emitted from these cars, so residential areas that litter close to the transportation system will not be affected like conventional train systems There is minimal environmental impact as the tracks are normally built high above land on supporting structures. Trees are rarely removed, so local animals are rarely affected. The speeds that these trains can reach average around 500 km/h, half the speed of airplanes. These amazing speeds will encourage commutes to take the maglev system as supposed to conventional cars. Since these trains float on a magnetic field, there are no jerky movements. Therefore, as this system becomes more popular, it can be an affordable method of travelling in luxury. These trains run on a track made specifically for them. Therefore, there is little delay and waiting time, thus making it a reliable mode of transportation. Although energy consumption is minimal, the maintenance of the magnetic field is also factor most countries do not wish to tap into. Although there are many benefits, the initial price of jump starting the project is a turn off for many countries. The fact that tracks need to be built specifically for this railway does not fit well with the budget of most countries. As this technology and design improves, more commuters will choose this system as a mode of transportation. Therefore, the economy will see a surge in the transportation sector and will adjust pricing to accommodate increased revenue. MHD stands for MagnetoHydroDynamic, a form of propulsion used in sea vessels using only electric and magnetic fields with no moving parts. Using Newton’s third law, the push on the water in the backwards direction resulted on a push forward by the water, thus resulting in the movement of the Yamato 1. A DC electric generator provided the power and a large potential difference between the two parallel plates. The potential difference then provided an electric current in the seawater. Conveniently, this electric current was perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the magnets. As a result, the force on the charges caused by the magnetic field pushed the out the back of the ship craft. The first working prototype, the Yamato 1, used large superconducting magnets to create an exceptionally strong magnetic field at the back bottom of the ship. Gasoline powered vessels on seas can be reduced through the development of this technology, thus protecting our limited resource of crude oil. The use of magnetism and electricity means that this vessel will be highly efficient, especially if solar panels were added to the hood of the ship More power and the vessel can be used for all purposes, including the cargo transportation overseas or navy applications. Depending on the evolution of the technology, sea transportation can be used as an alternative to air and land transportation over large distances. The absence of moving parts in these vessels means that aquatic life is rarely affected. If fishes were to enter the math of the propellers, it will not be killed but would rather experience the thrill of being pushed by a wave. However, more research should be done to analyze the effects of the magnetism to aquatic life, especially those who use magnetism as a way of life. Benefits After a certain amount of time, the electric field is turned off and a dye that can bind to the proteins/nucleic acids is added. The resulting “bands” represent the various molecules in the sample, which can be used to determine a child’s true birth parent or to find abnormalities in an individual’s protein. The different molecules in the DNA protein vary in sizes and charges. Molecules with a larger charge be more strongly drawn to the field, where as larger molecules will move slowly as compared to smaller ones. To perform electrophoresis, the sample that is being tested is placed in a medium where it can move around, normally a gel of polyacrylamide or agar. This medium is then placed in the presence of an electric field. Positively charged molecules will move towards the cathode (negative) and negatively charged molecules will more towards the anode (positive). The concept of electrophoresis is quite simple. It draws from the knowledge that many large molecules have a charge, and there will experience movement when placed in an electric field. Electrophoresis is the motion of charged particles in a mixture of substances under the influence of an electric field. Electrophoresis can be used to separate proteins, like DNA, into smaller molecules. This revolutionary procedure can be used to determine whether or not a child is truly the product of the two parents (cheating) In terms of crimes, obtaining DNA and using this process can be used to track down the criminal(s) In times of found missing children, the DNA sample obtained from the child can be used to determine if a/the parent(s) who come to claim the child is/are truly the parents. Electrophoresis can also be used to determine if an individual is healthy or if he/she has a disorder that can be treated (blood related). Benefits Benefits The concept of the electrocardiography is based on measuring the electric potential difference sent by the heart throughout various parts of the body. The potential difference on the surface of the body can range from 30 – 500 pV. The procedure requires the placement of 10 patches containing electrodes throughout various parts of your body: your arms, legs and chest. Based on the data, it can be determined if the heart is healthy based on the obtained factors: heart rate, heart rhythm, conduction abnormalities or analyze if there is a chance of coronary artery disease or if the heart muscle has become thickened. The electrodes in the patches are able to detect the electrical impulses created by the heart. It sends this information to an amplifying machine known as the ECG machine. The data obtained can produce a graph that can be analyzed by a professional operator. The duration of the test is normally 5 minutes. Electrocardiography is a diagnostic procedure that consists of recording the activity of the heart electronically based on the electrical activity on the nearby skin. An electrostatic precipitator is a device that charges the fine particles in the emissions of a plant factory which will be attracted to a metal plate, where they will later be collected for proper disposal. The concept of electric fields is put into play in this application. The device is essentially to metal plates placed parallel to each other near an emission emitting station, electrically connected. The emissions released from any given plant consist of tiny particles of soot, ash and dust. These particles are positively charged. As the emissions enter the station where the EP device is placed, the plates are negatively charged, thus ionizing the air near it. The electrons freed in the ionization then attach themselves to waste particles. Therefore, as the gas passes through the plates, 99.9% of the positively charged particles will become negatively charged and attach themseleves to the plates. The plates are shaken and cleaned off periodically, later being used as a filler in concrete.
The removal of large quantities of pollution molecules in the gases reduces the environmental impact surrounding the factories This technology is inexpensive, so it can be implemented to many factories that require it If this technology is improved, the amount of pollution prevented from entering the atmosphere can be reduced to 100% and there could be the possibility that the phenomenon of acid rain can improve itself over time. To reuse of the contained waste is like recycling, so this technology is a win win application If there are residential areas close to the factories, pollution affecting their daily lifestyle is something they do not need to worry about Benefits Some heart related dysfunctions can be determined by the unnormal electrical charts provided by the cardiogram. This can thus allow cardiac specialists to look into any problems that may come up and fis it as soon as possible. If analyzed on a regular basis, those who have a severe chance of a heart attack can be prevented from doing so by analyzing the results from the test. The history of the electrocardiogram can be pinpointed to the late 1800s when Alexander Muirhead came up with the idea to attach wires to the wrist of a feverish patient as a way to measure her heartbeats This technology is preventive measure for high cost surgeries to just identify if an individual has an heart related problems This technology is cheap enough to have a set for home use, especially for those how have heart conditions and need to be monitored regularly Electrocardiogram tests usually require a $20 to $60 fee for a technician to perform and a $40 to $100 fee for a doctor to interpret with a diagnosis In 1907, Dr. Frederick G. Cottrell applied for a patent on a device for charging particles and then collecting them through electrostatic attraction — the first electrostatic precipitator.
The gel electrophoresis technique is developed by Joe Sambrook
and Bill Sugden. They used agarose gel electrophoresis to separate DNA fragements The japanese were the first to build a working vessel that incorporated the MHD propulsion. It travelled at approximately 15km/h The maglev train was first invented in 1902 by a guy named Alfred Zehan The earth’s gravitational field exists in that it pulls objects within it’s gravitational field towards the centre of the earth. Essentially, it is quite difficult it to escape the earth’s gravitational field without excess amounts of energy. This is a consideration that must be applied when designing aircrafts, especially spacecrafts meant to exit the earths atmosphere. The purpose of spacecrafts is to exit the earth’s gravitational fields and enter the outer space. To do so, initial energy is required to be extremely high to produce lift off and consistent energy must be applied to maintain lift into outer space. Once in outer space, the sun’s gravitational field is the strongest in the solar system, so more consideration must be placed to ensure the spacecraft is not dragged into it’s field. Electric
Potential
Difference Field lines indicate direction of net force, therefore they may never cross (means contrasting net forces) If a positive test charge was placed in the electric field of positively charged sphere, the charge will experience
an outward push If a positive test charge was placed in the electric field of negatively charged sphere, the charge will experience
an inward pull Opposite charged spheres will have field lines interconnecting, with the arrows pointing towards the negative sphere. Less space between fields lines close to the horizontal line between the centre of the spheres are greater space going outwards. In electrically charged plates, the field lines run from the positively charged plate to the negatively charged plate. At the end of the plates, the field lines curve from plate to plate. The amount of work required per unit charge to move a positive charge from one point ot another in the presence of an electric field The electric potential can be described by the
Equation: For a positive charge, the electric potential is large near the charge and decreases, approaching zero, as r increases. For a negative charge, the electric potential is a large negative value near the charge and increases, approaching zero, as r increases. The electric potential difference can be described by the equation: Delta V is the potential difference between points B and A in the field Besides the fact that the earth has it's own gravitational field, it is important to know that other objects in our solar system also have their own gravitational field. This includes the sun and the moon. One of the popular impacts between the sun and the moon is it's effect on ocean tides. In a perfect world, everything on the earth would be round. However, this is not true in terms of the oceans. Depending on the location of the moon during it's orbit, the oceans on earth experience a pull by the moons gravitational field. Therefore, directly in line with the moon, the earths oceans in the line of field would experience a high tide. If the sun is perpendicualr to the moon and in line with the earth, it will slightly negate the effects of the moons gravitational field on the earths tides. However, provided that the sun is much farther from the earth as compared to the moon, it's gravitational field does not fully negate the moons gravitational affects or pull the tides towards itself. If the moon, the sun and the earth are parallel in a single line, the tides will experience what is called a sprig tide, where the gravitational forces of both the moon and the sun are combined. Therefore, the side facing the sun and the moon AND the opposing side of the earth experiences relatively large tides at this point. Understanding these circumstances and other situations can help scientists determine when high tides and low tides may occur Benefits Benefits Carefully planning when the high tides will occur, architectures can constructs highly effective dams or similar structures that will be able to use the energy created from this natural phenomenon The energy gethered from this renewable source can be essential in a world where finding alternative sources of energy is ideal Depending on how well this information is used to gather energy, the energy that is gathered might be able to power small sities or become an indeoendent source for other applications like the maglev trains Understanding when high tides occur is an asset to saving lives of fisherman or such that "live" out on seas. Those who live near large bodies of affected water can be safely relocated until this phenomenon has passed. The information obtained in lift off can be used to determine the strength of the earths gravitational field In the future, it is inevitable the population of the earth will extend beyond the capacity of the earth itself. If other planets are modified to allow the inhabitation of humans, scientists would need to calculate the amount of energy required to lift the space shuttle of earth with hundreds to thousands of average human passenges and lugage (space hotels) The knowledge gathered from these liftoffs are also applicable to keeping the satellites that litter the earths atmosphere from drifting off into space or falling down onto the earth Thank You For Watching This Prezi Hope It Expanded Your Knowledge on
ELECTRIC, MAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS Pathway Count: 279 CREATED BY Harranesh Puvanendran A Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School Student References Jeremy. "How does electrophoresis work." Medic guide. Sunday, May 31, 2009
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<http://wiki.medpedia.com/EKG#Benefits> Hinds, Williams. "Electrostatic Precipitators." unc.edu.
<http://www.unc.edu/courses/2009spring/envr/754/001/ESPs.pdf> Bonsor, Kevin. "How Maglev Trains Work" 13 October 2000. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/maglev-train.htm> 16 April 2011. R Nave. "Tides & suns tidal effects" Hyperphysics.
<http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/tide.html#mstid> "What causes high tide and low tide? Why are there two tides each day?" 21 May 2009. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/tide-cause.htm> 16 April 2011. "The basic of loop vehicle detection" Marshproducts.
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