Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Dark Matter and Dark Energy

No description
by

Maia Paddock

on 28 April 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

The Hidden Mysteries of the Universe Introduction Dark Matter - the Hidden Mass Dark Energy Pulls the Universe Apart What Exactly is Dark Matter? How much dark matter and dark energy is there in the universe? Alternative Theories Dark matter and dark energy, though they cannot be seen or detected by traditional scientific processes, may hold the answers to many of the questions and holes in current theories. The discoveries and theories of dark matter and dark energy have revolutionized scientists’ understanding of modern physics and the universe’s composition, history, and future. The theory of dark matter was first proposed by Jan Oort in 1932. The theory of dark energy was first proposed by the High-z Supernova Search Team The universe is mostly - 70% - dark energy. Dark matter is hard to detect because - as the name suggests - it does not emit any light. Dark matter and dark energy are still theories - what other theories can be used to explain the effects attributed to dark matter and dark energy? The Theories of Dark Matter and Dark Energy In Conclusion Though there is much that is still unknown, the theories of dark matter and dark energy have much merit and deserve to be more closely examined. The theory of Special Relativity states that mass can be converted into energy. By examining the Doppler Shifts of stars, Oort determined the stars' velocities were much higher than previously calculated. Using his data, Oort hypothesized the existence of Dark matter Later, Fritz Zwicky independently came to the same conclusion by measuring the velocities of galaxies. Galactic Rotation Curves A dark matter halo surrounds every galaxy
90% of matter in each galaxies is contained in this halo. The Doppler Shift The Doppler shift can be used to determine the speed of moving objects The study of the velocities of type Ia supernovas supports the theory of dark energy Gravity cluster counts are the other supporting evidence for dark energy. Stars are no longer forming as frequently due to the affects of dark energy. 25% of the universe is dark matter - more than five times as much as matter composed of the familiar protons, neutrons, and electrons. Baryonic There are two types of dark matter: Non-Baryonic Black Holes
Brown Dwarf Stars
Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Weakly Interacting
Massive Particles -
WIMPs Range, 2012 What is Dark Energy? Very little is known about the nature of dark energy. Is it the energy responsible for gravity? Is it the cosmological constant? What do Dark Matter
and Dark Energy Mean
to Modern Physics? Without dark matter, the universe would look dramatically different. Only one galaxy, spiral galaxy NGC 4736, is known to exist that does not contain dark matter. Cosmic Background Radiation and Micro Black Holes Dark Energy and Critical Density The critical density of the universe is very close to the critical density needed to make the universe flat. Dark energy is the rest of the mass needed to achieve this measured critical density. Dark Matter and Dark Energy Density Ratio Because of the ratio between dark energy and dark matter, scientists no longer believe in the "Big Crunch". The Fate of the Universe Modified Newtonian Dynamics Alters traditional Newtonian physics by assuming acceleration squared is proportional to gravitational force for very large and very small scales. Explains some, but not all, cosmic phenomena. String Theory Most credible theory opposing the existence of dark matter and dark energy. All matter is composed of one dimensional strings whose vibrations determine which particle is manifested. Works Cited Alfonso-Faus, Antonio & Josep Fullana i Alfonso, Màrius. “Sources of cosmic microwave radiation and dark matter identified: millimeter black holes (m.b.h.)”. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 9 April 2010. Web. 22 April 2013.

Battersby, Stephen. “Galaxy Without Dark Matter Puzzles Astronomers”. New Scientist, 6 February 2008. Web. 22 April 2013.

Biello, David. “What are Dark Matter and Dark Energy, and How are They Affecting the Universe?”. Scientific American, 28 August 2006. Web. 23 April 2013.

Carroll, Sean. “Dark Energy, or Worse: Was Einstein Wrong?”. Caltech, n.d. Web. April 17, 2013.

Cho, Adrian. “More Evidence Against Dark Matter?”. Science Now, 25 Frebruary 2011. Web. 26 April 2013.

Chuss, David. “What is the Universe Made Of?”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 21 December, 2012. Web. 24 April, 2013.

“Dark Energy Vs. Dark Matter”. Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, n.d. Web. 24 April 2013.

“DES Science”. The Dark Energy Survey, n.d. Web. April 21, 2013.

Eleni, Adrian. “The Doppler Effect”. University of Illinois, June 24, 1995. Web. 22 April 2013. Netting, Ruth. “Dark Energy, Dark Matter”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 7 March 2013. Web. April 15, 2013.

Panek, Richard. “Dark Energy: The Biggest Mystery in the Universe”. Smithsonian, April 2010. Web. April 16, 2013.

Plait, Phil. “AstroAlert: Type Ia Supernova in M101!”. Discover Magazine, 25 August, 2011. Web. April 17, 2013.

Redd, Nola Taylor. “String Theory: A Brief Overview”. Space.com, n.d. Web. 24 April 2013.

Sherman, Reid. “A Doppler Shift Speed Gun”. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics University of Chicago, 30 March 2007. Web. April 21, 2013.

Silk, Joe. “Dark Matter”. University of California at Berkeley, n.d. Web. 23 April, 2013.

“The Cosmic Background Radiation”. University of Tennessee, n.d. Web. April 24, 2013.

“The High-Z SN Search”. The High-Z Supernova Search Team, n.d. Web. 21 April 2013.

Zabludoff, Ann. “Lecture 23: Dark Matter, Baryons vs. Non-Baryons, and the Fate of the Universe” University of Arizona, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013. European Southern Observatory - ESO. "Serious blow to dark matter theories? New study finds mysterious lack of dark matter in Sun's neighborhood." ScienceDaily, 18 April 2012. Web. 22 April 2013.

Gonzalez, Robert T. “The Lights in the Universe are Going Out. Now Astronomers Think They Know Why.” io9, 23 August 2011. Web. 22 April, 2013.

Grant, Andrew. “Dark Matter Detector Reports Hints of WIMPs”. Science News, 15 April 2013. Web. 25 April 2013.

Keel, Bill. “Dark Matter”. University of Alabama, October 2010. Web. 24 April 2013.

“M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings”. Cambridge University, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013.

Major, Jason. “Dark matter Hits the Average Human Once a Minute”. National Geographic, 24 April 2012. Web. 23 April 2013.

Major, Jason. “Researchers May Have Finally Detected a Dark Matter Particle”. Universe Today, 15 April 2013. Web. 25 April 2013.

Moskowitz, Clara. “Bizarre Dark Energy Theory Gets Boost From New Measurements”. Space.com, 15 March 2011. Web. 17 April 2013.

Moskowitz, Clara. “Right Again, Einstein! New Study Supports ‘Cosmological Constant’”. Scientific American, n.d. Web. 17 April 2013. Munroe, 2006 NASA, 2011 NASA/WMAP Science Team, 2012 NASA/WMAP Science Team, 2011 NASA, 2010 Messier 94 (NGC 4736), n.d. Zabludoff, n.d. NASA, n.d. NASA/CXC/M.Weiss, 2011 Rotational velocity curve of the M33 galaxy, n.d. Leiden Observatory, n.d. Sherman, 2007 Greig, 2005 Image References Greig, Lori. “The Theory of Relativity.” Photograph. Flickriver, 28 May 2005. Web. 22 April 2013.

Leiden Observatory. “Jan Oort”. Photograph. Universiteit Leiden, n.d. Photograph. Web. 22 April 2013. This image is copyright by the Leiden Observatory.

“Messier 94 (NGC 4736)”. Photograph. Astronomy News, n.d. Web. 24 April 2013.

Munroe, Randall. “String Theory”. Image. xkcd.com, 16 October 2006. Web. 25 April 2013.

NASA. “Composition of the Cosmos”. Image. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013.

NASA. “WMAP data of the Cosmic Microwave Background”. Image. Universe Today, 23 November 2010. Web. 24 April 2013. NASA. “Universe Fate”. Image. Science Blogs, 4 October 2011. Web. 24 April 2013.

NASA/CXC/M.Weiss. “Type Ia Art”. Image. Discover Magazine, 25 August, 2011. Web. 23 April, 2013.

NASA/WMAP Science Team. “Schematic diagram of the potential geometries of the Universe”. Image. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 21 December 2012. Web. 24 April 2013.

NASA/WMAP Science Team. “Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background”. Image. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 24 June 2011. Web. 24 April 2013.

Range. “Distribution of WIMPs in a Galaxy”. Image. SciTechDaily, 10 May 2012. Web. 23 April 2013. “Rotational velocity curve of the M33 galaxy.” Image. The University of Sheffield, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013.

Sherman, Reid. “The Doppler Shift”. Photograph. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics University of Chicago, 30 March 2007. Web. April 21, 2013.

Zabludoff, Ann. “Low Surface Brightness Galaxies” University of Arizona, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013. Potentially, this understanding could lend scientists a better understanding of how the universe began, where it is going, and what this means for the future of the Earth and human exploration.
Full transcript