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Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Transcript of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
90% of matter in each galaxies is contained in this halo. The Doppler Shift The Doppler shift can be used to determine the speed of moving objects The study of the velocities of type Ia supernovas supports the theory of dark energy Gravity cluster counts are the other supporting evidence for dark energy. Stars are no longer forming as frequently due to the affects of dark energy. 25% of the universe is dark matter - more than five times as much as matter composed of the familiar protons, neutrons, and electrons. Baryonic There are two types of dark matter: Non-Baryonic Black Holes
Brown Dwarf Stars
Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Weakly Interacting
Massive Particles -
WIMPs Range, 2012 What is Dark Energy? Very little is known about the nature of dark energy. Is it the energy responsible for gravity? Is it the cosmological constant? What do Dark Matter
and Dark Energy Mean
to Modern Physics? Without dark matter, the universe would look dramatically different. Only one galaxy, spiral galaxy NGC 4736, is known to exist that does not contain dark matter. Cosmic Background Radiation and Micro Black Holes Dark Energy and Critical Density The critical density of the universe is very close to the critical density needed to make the universe flat. Dark energy is the rest of the mass needed to achieve this measured critical density. Dark Matter and Dark Energy Density Ratio Because of the ratio between dark energy and dark matter, scientists no longer believe in the "Big Crunch". The Fate of the Universe Modified Newtonian Dynamics Alters traditional Newtonian physics by assuming acceleration squared is proportional to gravitational force for very large and very small scales. Explains some, but not all, cosmic phenomena. String Theory Most credible theory opposing the existence of dark matter and dark energy. All matter is composed of one dimensional strings whose vibrations determine which particle is manifested. Works Cited Alfonso-Faus, Antonio & Josep Fullana i Alfonso, Màrius. “Sources of cosmic microwave radiation and dark matter identified: millimeter black holes (m.b.h.)”. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 9 April 2010. Web. 22 April 2013.
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Plait, Phil. “AstroAlert: Type Ia Supernova in M101!”. Discover Magazine, 25 August, 2011. Web. April 17, 2013.
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Zabludoff, Ann. “Lecture 23: Dark Matter, Baryons vs. Non-Baryons, and the Fate of the Universe” University of Arizona, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013. European Southern Observatory - ESO. "Serious blow to dark matter theories? New study finds mysterious lack of dark matter in Sun's neighborhood." ScienceDaily, 18 April 2012. Web. 22 April 2013.
Gonzalez, Robert T. “The Lights in the Universe are Going Out. Now Astronomers Think They Know Why.” io9, 23 August 2011. Web. 22 April, 2013.
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Moskowitz, Clara. “Right Again, Einstein! New Study Supports ‘Cosmological Constant’”. Scientific American, n.d. Web. 17 April 2013. Munroe, 2006 NASA, 2011 NASA/WMAP Science Team, 2012 NASA/WMAP Science Team, 2011 NASA, 2010 Messier 94 (NGC 4736), n.d. Zabludoff, n.d. NASA, n.d. NASA/CXC/M.Weiss, 2011 Rotational velocity curve of the M33 galaxy, n.d. Leiden Observatory, n.d. Sherman, 2007 Greig, 2005 Image References Greig, Lori. “The Theory of Relativity.” Photograph. Flickriver, 28 May 2005. Web. 22 April 2013.
Leiden Observatory. “Jan Oort”. Photograph. Universiteit Leiden, n.d. Photograph. Web. 22 April 2013. This image is copyright by the Leiden Observatory.
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Munroe, Randall. “String Theory”. Image. xkcd.com, 16 October 2006. Web. 25 April 2013.
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NASA/WMAP Science Team. “Schematic diagram of the potential geometries of the Universe”. Image. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 21 December 2012. Web. 24 April 2013.
NASA/WMAP Science Team. “Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background”. Image. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 24 June 2011. Web. 24 April 2013.
Range. “Distribution of WIMPs in a Galaxy”. Image. SciTechDaily, 10 May 2012. Web. 23 April 2013. “Rotational velocity curve of the M33 galaxy.” Image. The University of Sheffield, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013.
Sherman, Reid. “The Doppler Shift”. Photograph. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics University of Chicago, 30 March 2007. Web. April 21, 2013.
Zabludoff, Ann. “Low Surface Brightness Galaxies” University of Arizona, n.d. Web. 23 April 2013. Potentially, this understanding could lend scientists a better understanding of how the universe began, where it is going, and what this means for the future of the Earth and human exploration.