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Chapter 8: Schools and Society
Transcript of Chapter 8: Schools and Society
Chapter 8: Schools and Society
Chapter 8 Learning Targets
explain how public schools are governed and funded.
identify the structure of education in my state.
describe societal problems that impact schools and learning, along with developing possible solutions.
Who is Responsible for Schools?
Responsibility for public schools falls under three levels of government:
Local School Districts
The Federal Government
Funding for Education
The four sources of funding for education are:
Comes from sales and income taxes
Comes from the community; usually a portion of local property taxes. Sometimes controversial.
Comes from the federal government; only covers less than 10% of the funds needed to operate schools.
Comes from private charitable foundations who award grants.
Comes from private citizens who raise money for specific school needs.
Social Problems Affect Schools
Minimizing the impact of social problems takes the effort of administrators, students, parents, teachers, and the community to truly make a difference.
How Can Teachers Make a Difference?
Have high expectations for all students
Encourage ambitious but realistic goals
Provide consistent class routines
Make learning meaningful and linked to the real world
Provide students with opportunities to help others
Communicate respect and caring
Show a willingness to listen
Have conflict management and mediation skills
Convey a sense of hope and optimism
Suggest positive choices and alternatives
Chapter 8 Key Terms
Spending per pupil
School funding gap
Zero Tolerance Policy
Involves 4 key groups of people:
Pass laws and make major decisions related to education.
State Board of Education
Provide leadership in educational policy making.
Commissioner of Education
Acts as a link between the state legislature and the state board of education.
State Department of Education
Responsible for the operation of schools within a state.
Local School Districts
Local school districts' role usually involves the following people:
The School Board
This group of elected people sets policies and makes decisions about how schools within the district should be run.
The District Superintendent
Acts as the connection between the local school board and individual schools.
The School Administration
Oversee daily operations in individual schools.
The federal government's role in education is:
to pass federal legislation to assist states in providing quality education for all students.
to collect information on education in America.
to ensure quality education for all children.
to establish national priorities and collect data to see how schools are performing in these areas.
to act as a watchdog to prevent discrimination in schools.
The Problem of Unequal School Funding
Unequal school funding is a problem because:
Spending per pupil is often used to compare school funding in districts and states. Schools with more money can provide better educational opportunities.
School funding gap- schools in districts with low property tax often have students of low socioeconomic status who require more services.
Achievement gap- schools with high achievement gaps receive less federal funding. These are typically in low income areas.
Communities and Schools
Schools are important in communities because:
Citizens take pride in the accomplishments of students and schools.
Parents are involved in schools by:
Communicating with teachers and staff, serving on committees, participating in parent school associations, helping with sports and activities, or volunteering in other areas.
Business and industry are involved with schools because:
They need potential workers who have the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for successful employment.
They can also enter into a corporate-education partnership.
School and Community Resources
School and community resources are shared by:
School counselors may refer families to community social services for appropriate support.
Public libraries may provide resources that schools do not have.
Dual credit offerings between area high schools and colleges/universities.
Poverty affects learning by:
Hungry children have a difficult time learning and staying awake.
Sick children without healthcare often miss more school.
Poor living conditions make it difficult to get adequate rest.
Less access to technology and resources required to be successful.
Schools can break the cycle of poverty by:
Draw on diverse resources to help students be successful and become educated.
Violence affects learning by:
Children mimic what they see on TV, in movies, in music, and on video games.
When a person is fearful, they are more likely to miss school.
Common areas of violence in schools are:
Bullying and intimidation/cyberbullying
Sexual and racial harassment
Schools can deal with violence by:
Developing programs that maximize safety and work to change circumstances that make violence seem like a reasonable option.
Establishing zero tolerance policies on violence.
Sexually Active Students
Sexually active students face risks such as:
Sexually transmitted diseases and infections
HIV and AIDS
Schools can deal with sexually active students by:
Educating students on positive self-esteem, peer pressure and refusal skills, and the risks of sexual activity.
Supporting pregnant and parenting teens.
Alcohol and Other Drugs
Student use of alcohol and drugs can lead to:
Adverse effects on learning
Permanent changes in the brain
Rise in violence
What can schools do?
Communicate with parents
Student management and discipline