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A New Nation: America is Born

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zak wilson

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of A New Nation: America is Born

A New Nation: America is Born
Standard USI.7a- identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of the Confederation.
Standard USI.7b- describe the historical development of the Constitution of the United States of America.
Standard USI.7c- describe the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.

On September 3, 1783 the Revolutionary
War came to an official ending. The
signing of the Treaty of Paris was this
official ending.
So what's next for a new nation?...

We have:
1.) Revolted against British government
2.) Boycotted British goods and services
3.) Fought a war against the British army
4.) Declared ourselves Independent
5.) Declared a leader of our new nation
6.) What's next?
We form a constitution
A Constitution
-
basic rules which a state or other organization will be governed by.
The title of our first constitution was
"The Articles of Confederation"
Essential Understanding
- The Articles of Confederation was a constitution written during the American Revolution
to establish the powers of the new national government.
Weaknesses
you need to know about the
Articles of Confederation
:
1.) It didn't provide a strong national government
Each state had it's own government, no state wanted to submit to another, so arguments often occurred when trying to create new laws for all of the states to follow together.
Also, when the states would try to gather in an effort make overall decisions, not
everyone would show up to the meetings
2.) It gave
Congress

NO
power to tax or regulate commerce (
trade
) among the states.
So what is Congress, before
we move on any further?
Congress
-
an assembly of representatives for the
discussion,

arrangement,
or
promotion
of some matter of common interest.

3.) It provided for no common currency.
4.) It gave each state 1 vote regardless of size.
Remember though, not every state would send
a representative to the Congress to cast their
vote... so you can see the problem here.
To vote a new law into action
it took
9 out of 13
states representatives
to agree in order to pass.
5.) It provided for no executive or judicial branches of government.
Executive Branch
-
Headed by the President; puts laws created by the Legislative Branch into action.
Judicial Branch
- Headed by the Supreme Court; oversees the court systems and reinstates the Constitution.
It was the first written constitution of the United States. It was written quickly after the war and its progress was slowed by fears of central authority and too many "land claims" by states before was it was ratified on March 1, 1781.
https://www.brainpop.com/socialstudies/ushistory/articlesofconfederation/
The weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation

led to the effort to draft a new constitution.
PART 2
: The Constitutional Convention
Essential Understanding
-
The development of the Constitution of the United States was significant to the foundation of the American republic. It created a
federal system
of government and replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Federal System
-
is cooperation between State and National governments
The Constitutional Convention-
is where states delegates

(representatives)
met in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
and decided to write a new constitution.
George Washington

was elected
president of the Constitutional
Convention. He was elected because he was trusted and respected by many.
At the Constitutional Convention
,
delegates debated
over how much power should be given to the new
NATIONAL
government.
The Articles of Confederation was written so -
the colonies would have a
WEAK
national government
!
George Washington himself even said:
"
I predict the worse consequences from a half starved, limping government, always tottering at every step.
"
There was a new found purpose in creating this Constitution. These delegates were interested in creating an equal and responsible government. A government that would treat all colonies equally and fairly under one sound constitution.
According to the Articles of Confederation there were
NO Executive or Judicial Branches
of government
(for each state)
ONLY
IDEAS
The structure of the new national government included three separate branches of government:
1.) Legislative
2.) Executive
3.) Judicial
So, under this new constitution, the House of Representatives and the Senate have developed from ideas into realities.
Now, at the
Constitutional Convention
,
they
had to determine how many votes each
state would have in the Senate and House of
Representatives.
This is known as
The Great
Compromise.
In the House of Representatives each state would be assigned a number of seats in proportion to its population.
In the Senate, all states would have the same number of seats. Today, we take this arrangement for granted; in the wilting-hot summer of 1787, it was a new idea.
Today, Congress has 535 voting members: 435 Representatives and 100 Senators.
At the end
of the Constitutional Convention, 38 of the 55 Delegates in attendance signed the document
Even after all of the delegates hard work and determination to construct such a Constitution, they still had to vote on the passing of it.
9 out of 13 states

had to vote in favor of the Constitution before it could become law.
The votes looked like this in the end:
December 7, 1787: Delaware ratifies. Vote: 30 for, 0 against.

December 12, 1787: Pennsylvania ratifies. Vote: 46 for, 23 against.

December 18, 1787: New Jersey ratifies. Vote: 38 for, 0 against.

January 2, 1788: Georgia ratifies. Vote: 26 for, 0 against.

January 9, 1788: Connecticut ratifies. Vote: 128 for, 40 against.

February 6, 1788: Massachusetts ratifies. Vote: 187 for, 168 against

March 24, 1788: Rhode Island popular referendum rejects. Vote: 237 for, 2708 against.

April 28, 1788: Maryland ratifies. Vote: 63 for, 11 against.

May 23, 1788: South Carolina ratifies. Vote: 149 for, 73 against.

June 21, 1788: New Hampshire ratifies. Vote: 57 for, 47 against. Minimum requirement for ratification met.

June 25, 1788: Virginia ratifies. Vote: 89 for, 79 against.

July 26, 1788: New York ratifies. Vote: 30 for, 27 against.

August 2, 1788: North Carolina convention adjourns without ratifying by a vote of 185 in favor of adjournment, 84 opposed.

November 21, 1789: North Carolina ratifies. Vote: 194 for, 77 against.

May 29, 1790: Rhode Island ratifies. Vote: 34 for, 32 against.


Part 3:
The Bill of Rights
The Preamble to the Constitution is something many have memorized over the years, and that particular section of the Constitution is probably the most famous part amongst many American today...
Let's sing along :)
The Virginia Declaration of Rights -
One of those Virginia documents that the Bill of Rights is modeled after. It was written by George Mason.
The Bill of Rights-

the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, which provide guaranteed individual rights. It was based off of two Virginia Documents.
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom-
The other Virginia document that the Bill of Rights is modeled after. This document was written by Thomas Jefferson.
Part 4:

First 5 Presidents
Essential Understanding
-
Congress and the first five presidents made decisions establishing a strong government that helped the nation grow in size and power.
Do you know who these guys are?
All but one of the first five presidents were from Virginia.
John Adams was from Massachusetts
George Washington
Let's start with
You need to know about
3 major accomplishments that occurred during George Washington's presidency.
1.)

The Federal Court system was established
2.)

The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution of the United States of America.
3.)

Plans were made for developing the national capital in Washington D.C.


-
Benjamin Banneker-

an
African American astronomer
and surveyor, helped
complete the design of
Washington D.C.
#1
#2
Next up,
John Adams
Under John Adams the party system was developed. There were 2 groups that were represented in the two party system: Federalists vs Democratic-Republicans.
You need to know:
A two party system emerged during John Adams administration.
#3
Next is...
Thomas Jefferson
You need to know 2 major accomplishments that occurred under Thomas Jefferson:
1.)

He bought Louisiana from France. This event is called the Louisiana Purchase.
2.)

Lewis and Clark explored land West of the Mississippi River
Our forth president was

James Madison
#4
James Madison was our leader during the War of 1812.
Victory during the War of 1812 ended up causing European nation to gain respect for the United States.
Last, but not least, our 5th president

James Monroe
#5
He introduced the
Monroe Doctrine,

warning European nations not to
interfere in the Western Hemisphere
Even after 9 out of 13 states vote,
there has to be a unanimous decision in
order for a law to go into effect.
Full transcript