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World Geography - Unit 1, Chapter 1
Transcript of World Geography - Unit 1, Chapter 1
Exploring Geography Changes Within the Earth Changes on the Earth's Surface The Study of Geography Geography allows you to examine and understand the constantly changing world in which you live. Through the study of geography you learn to see your world from many different perspectives... Geography is the study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other. Geographers (people who study geography for a living) use many different forms of technology to help them examine and understand geography such as sonar, satellites, GIS and computer technology. Geographers also use geographic concepts such as patterns of settlement, science and technology, and economic activities to help them understand and analyze the world around them. Geography's Five Themes Location Place Regions Movement Human-Environment
Interaction Absolute Location Relative Location Absolute location is the exact position of a place or object on the globe.
Lines of Latitude run east and west, parallel to the Equator. These lines measure distances north or south of the Equator.
Lines of Longitude run north and south between the north and south pole. These lines measure distances east and west of the Prime Meridian. Another way to locate a place is to describe its relative location, or its relation compared to other places.
For example, Greensburg is 10 miles west of Haviland. Haviland is 20 miles east of Mullinville. Give me an example of your relative location in this classroom? What would be your absolute location if you used the desks as latitude and longitude? Character of a place consists of the place's physical characteristics and human characteristics. Physical Characteristics Places have unique physical characteristics, such as landforms, ecosystems, and climate.
Ecosystems range from leafy tropical rain forests to the tundra. Human Characteristics Language spoken, customs, and beliefs of a given area.
What type of human characteristics does Kiowa County have? A region is a group of places with at least one common characteristic. Sometimes these regions are determined by people's perceptions of that region.
Perception is a viewpoint that is influenced by one's own culture and experiences.
Examples: Midwest, Bible belt, Kansas City metro area. Places change, evolve, and adapt based off of the people, goods, and ideas that move between them.
How has this community changed in the past 10 years? Human beings have made enormous changes in their environment.
Some changes are accidental and some are intentional.
How have we changed this community? The earth's surface is a constantly changing surface. How do you think these things looked when they were new? What changed their appearance? Weathering is one way in which the surface of our earth can change...weathering is the breakdown of rock at or near the earth's surface into smaller and small pieces. Two types of weathering... Mechanical Weathering This occurs when rock is actually broken down or weakened physically.
When water gets into cracks in a rock, freezes and expands it will split the rock.
Turns boulders into rocks, rocks into pebbles, and pebbles in sand. Chemical Weathering This process actually alters the chemical makeup of rock.
This can change one type of rock into a completely different type of rock. Erosion also drastically changes the surface of our earth. Erosion is the movement of weathered materials such as gravel, soil, and sand. 3 types of erosion Water Wind Glaciers The largest canyons and the deepest valleys on earth were created in part by moving water.
Moving water is the greatest cause of erosion. Examples: Rain, rivers, streams, and oceans.
Moving water (except in rain) carries sediment or small particles of soil, sand, and gravel.
Sediment contributes immensely to the eroding process. The second major cause of erosion is wind.
Wind can carry sand and dirt thousands of miles and deposit it in a new location. The sand carried by wind sometimes leads to erosion itself. Glaciers are huge, slow moving sheets of ice.
They form over many, many years as many layers of unmelted snow are pressed together and turn into ice.
As glaciers move they carry dirt, rocks, and boulders and the terrain is worn away by the rock debris dragged along with the moving ice.