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Activity 10.6 - Evidence for Evolution
Transcript of Activity 10.6 - Evidence for Evolution
Vestigial organs are present in modern animals, but are no longer any use to them.
Homologous structures are anatomically similar structures with different functions.
Fossils are living things, or pieces of living things that have been preserved in a rock.
Comparative Anatomy is the study of the similarities and differences in the structures of different species.
Comparative embryology is the study of embryos and their development in different animals.
An analogous structure, as opposed to a homologous structure, are anatomically different, but functionality or physiology is similar.
By looking at fossils, we can see how a species used to look a long time ago, and compare it to how it looks today. We can use its change over time as evidence of evolution.
We can also use fossils to study organisms that no longer exist, and figure out why they died. Which is more evidence of natural selection.
Homologous structures, embryology, and comparative anatomy show us how different organisms have started out the same and changed or adapted into their environment.
These structures give hints as to the evolution of organisms.
Vestigial structures, in modern-day organisms, are much smaller than perhaps they were in the past.
Examples include: the human tailbone, a whale's pelvis, and the appendix.
Divergent evolution is a key term commonly used when discussing homologous structures because it helps us understand that the reason these organisms have such structures is because they inherited it from a common ancestor, millions of years ago.
Analogous structures are noticed as, part of what's commonly deemed among scientists as, convergent evolution.
In biological terms, convergent evolution states that although certain populations of organisms have very distant common ancestors, they may still evolve to employ similar traits due to a similar adaptation in their environment.
This study helps to determine evolutionary relationships in nature.
A great deal of evidence for confirming the relatedness of all organisms can be found using techniques used in comparative embryology.
Molecular biologists compare genes and proteins of different organisms. They also use these comparisons to help determine evolutionary relationships.
Combined with evidence coming from comparative embryology or comparative anatomy, evolutionary biologists can get much more closer to developing a realistic picture of the evolutionary species on planet Earth.
Scientists do this by examining plasma membranes and proteins of different organisms to compare their relatedness.