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The Canadian Shield

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sukhmani thind

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of The Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield Vegetation: The vegetation in the Canadian Shield region of Canada is very different than the rest of Canada. The vegetation of the Canadian Shield is mostly trees. There are many types of trees in the Canadian Shield. Most of the trees are coniferous trees. In the south, the trees are larger and closer together. As you go north trees are smaller and not as dense. The forests are mixed with birch trees, aspen trees, tamarack trees, black and white spruce tress, willow trees, hemlock trees, pine trees and balsam fir tress. The mixed forests are beautiful in the fall when the leaves of the deciduous trees change color. The Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes, particularly in the southern regions. The Canadian Shield is the largest sub-region in the Northern Region. It is 4.8 billion square km in area. It is located in: North-east Alberta, Northern Saskatchewan, Northern Manitoba, Southern N.W.T, Ontario (except for the Ontario Peninsula), Quebec, Labrador, Eastern Minnesota, Northern Wisconsin and Northern Michigan. The largest bodies of water in this region are Great Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca, Reindeer Lake and part of Lake Superior. There are also many rivers in this region. The landscape in this region can be described as rocky with many different types of bodies of water.It is an area mostly composed of igneous rock which relates to its long volcanic history. Using longitude and latitude you can find the coordinates of the Canadian Shield. Its southern-most point is 89W 44N, the Northern-most point is, 105W 57N, the Western-most point is 115W 57N and the Eastern-most point is 57W 51N. Since the Canadian Shield is so large the climate varies.

In the southern parts of the Canadian Shield such as southern Ontario the climate is seasonal. In the winter the average temperature is about –18 degrees Celsius and in the summer it is about +25 degrees Celsius. The growing season is about 120 days. The south has about 15 hours of daylight in the summer and 8.5 hours in the winter.

The average temperature in the northern part of the Canadian Shield is about –35 in the winter and about +15 in the summer. The growing season is only about 60 days and in the winter the north only has about 5.5 hours of daylight. In the summer the northern part has 18.5 hours of daylight everyday. Climate The Canadian Shield region of Canada has lots of animals. Some of the animals are moose, black bears, grizzly bears, wolves, foxes, beavers, minks, martens, wolverines, lynxes, wood buffalo, woodland caribou, shrews, weasels and hares. The Canadian Shield has many different types of wildlife that make the area their home because they can find enough food, water and shelter there. Wildlife
The shield is composed of granite and the earth's greatest area of exposed Precambrian rock (igneous and metamorphic rock formed in the Precambrian geological era 500 million years ago). The shield was originally a region of very large mountains and some volcanic activity, but over the millennia the area was eroded. The shield was the first part of the continent to be permanently raised above sea-level. Subsequent rising and falling, folding, erosion and continental ice sheets have created its present topography. The reoccurring invasion and withdrawal of the ice sheets (1.6 million to 10,000 years ago) depressed the surface creating Hudson Bay, scraped out tens of thousands of lake basins, carried away much of the soil cover and redeposited glacial debris. Geological Process
The Canadian Shield forms the core of the continent and occupies almost half of Canada's surface. The Canadian Shield is made up of stable Precambrian rocks. Over most of the Shield, average elevation is approximately 300 metres above sea level. The Canadian Shield is rich in metals and minerals of all kinds. The Superior Province is one of the most important sources of metals in Canada and is the location of copper, zinc, gold, iron and silver deposits. The Sudbury mining district in the Southern Province, known for its nickel and copper deposits, is one of the most important mining areas in the world. Major gold deposits are mined in the Slave Province, and copper, lead, zinc, uranium, nickel, cobalt and tungsten have been discovered in the northwestern part of the Churchill Province. The rocks of the Bear Province contain deposits of uranium, copper, chalcocite, copper, bornite and chalcopyrite. For its part, the Grenville Province has deposits of magnetite, pegmatites containing mica, feldspar, apatite, uranium, titanium, as well as zinc and lead sulphides. Few mineral discoveries have been made in the Nain Province. Geological Features Interesting Facts Canadian Shield is an old land that is more than 2 billion years old. The Shield is one of the world's richest areas in terms of mineral ores. Also known as the Precambrian Shield Eduard Suess named the Canadian shield in 1883 Two-thirds of Ontario is located in the Canadian Shield Makes up nearly half of Canada Had a lot of volcanic activity A lot of wild life Use the endless supply of water for hydro electricity It is filled with substantial deposits of nickel, gold, silver, and copper Sparse in population
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