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Does "World History Patterns of Interaction" cover enough information for students?
Transcript of Does "World History Patterns of Interaction" cover enough information for students?
Zoskales was thought to be the first king of Axum
Seized areas along the Red Sea and Blue Nile
Axum was in a prime location for trade
It became an international trading power
They traded rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds, and gold
They got imported cloth, glass, olive oil, wine, brass, iron, and copper in return
Axum reached its height in 325-360 A.D. under Ezana
Akumites believed in one god, Mahrem
Axum converted to Christianity when Ezana came to power
Islamic invaders conquered huge amounts of land between 632-750A.D.
As Islamic invaders conquered more and more land the Christian settlements became more isolated Textbook On the Axum "Columbia Project on Asia in the core curriculum; Asian in western and world history; A guide for teaching" - Ainslie T. Embree and Carol Gluck Textbook On The Bantu The text book "World History: Patterns of Interaction" does NOT give enough information from civilizations in Africa to civilizations in Asian and Europe. The material not given in the book about these civilizations are a huge part of why they progressed and failed in different ways than others. Although the book does give the same amount of detail for Mongol as any other resource. The book covers Mongol Empire in depth but unfortunately not the others. Thesis Statement One of the largest empires ever
Abundance of crops
Had a powerful army
Great wealth due to trade
Gold mines in the south and salt mines in the north bringing in great amounts of money and trade
Used iron tools and weapons
They farmed cotton and sesame
This book is meant for a younger audience Textbook On The Mali Other Sources On The Bantu Other Sources On The Axum Textbook On The Empire Ghana Other Sources On The Ghana Other Sources On The Songhai When Mali declined in the 1400's, people under the control started to break away. Songhai was one of them (people to the east)
They built up their army and extended their territory to the bend in the Niger River near Gao (capitol of their empire)
They controlled all of the important trade routes.
Sunni Ali- Built and empire from military conquest.
Ruled for 30 years since 1464.
His army contained a riverboat fleet of war canoes and a mobile fighting force for horses.
Became a military commander and expanded Songhai
1468- Captured city of Timbuktu (Important part of Mali's empire)
1473- Took Djenne (a trade city) and married its queen
To take Djenne, Sunni surrounded the city with his army for 7 years before it fell.
Askia Muhummad- After Sunni died, his son took over for him.
Immediately he faced rebelling Muslims complaining about not practicing their religion enough (Leader of the revolt was Askia)
He soon drove out Sunni's son and turned out to be a good administrator and made an efficient tax system. (Ruled for 37 years)
Songhai empire lacked modern weapons. (They had swords while everyone else had guns.)
Falll of Songhai ended a 1000 year period where kingdoms/empires ruled central West Africa. Textbook On The Songhai Wendi stated himself as the first emperor of the Sui Dynasty
The Dynasty only lasted through 2 emperors, from 581-618
Greatest accomplishment was the completion of the Grand Canal
This allowed trade for Northern and Southern cities.
618- Member of the imperial court assassinated the 2 Sui emperors
The dynasty ruled for 300 years.
First emperor was Tang Taizong (626-649)
China expanded over to Korea- ruler was Wu Zhao
She knew she was stronger than the passing emperors so in 690, she claimed the title for herself.
China strengthened their government,roads/canals, trade, and agriculture.
751- Muslim beat China on a battle putting control into foreign hands.
907- Chinese rebels burned Tang capitol Ch'ang-an and murdered the last emperor. (A child) Textbook On The Tang Dynasty Other Sources On The Tang Dynasty Textbook On The Song Dynasty Other Sources On The Song Dynasty Textbook On The Mongolians To make it easier on the rulers Incas divided the land into smaller divisions
Roads could be found throughout the kingdom
Incas worked off of the ayllu system
Ayllu System- Extended family helps out with work and building that would be to hard for one family to do alone
Religion was very important it backed their strong grip on government and was the key to their sacred shrines
Reaching the top of their power as an empire in the 1500's the Incas were then taken over by the Spanish Textbook On The Inca Other Sources On The Incans Textbook On Charlemagne's Empire In 768 Pepin the short died and Charlemange came to power
His empire was the greatest since ancient Rome
By 800 A.D. Charlenagene was the most powerful king in western Europe
One of his greatest accomplishments was the encouragement of education
The empire collapsed when he crowned all three of his sons and it split into three differant kingdoms and lost central control Other Sources On Charlemagne's Empire Religions (Confucianism)
Decline of the dynasty
Technology (Printing and cotton usage)
Rice and Tea significance
This book is meant for a much older audience How Is Africa Significant to Us? Africa has influenced our daily lives in more ways then we know. The earliest civilization dates back to Africa and without that we wouldn't even be here right now. Trade was also a huge part of why Africa and Europe we're able to grow. If Africa was unable to trade with Europe, Europe would not have been able to found and fund the explorations to discover America. Africa's basic technology they used back then is still used today. Africa's way of trading are the basics of our day to day shopping experiences. In more ways then one Africa is the foundation to our day to day life. How Has Africa Influenced Our Daily Lives Today? Sundiata, the first leader, came to power by crushing the old leader
Sundiata died in 1255
Mansa Musa ruled from 1312-1332
Under Mansa Musa Mali almost doubled in size "The Songhai Empire"- David Conrad, Ph.D Citations The people of Gao and how it expanded during its time
750-950: The city of Gao became a major trade center for goods being transported across the Sahara
They referenced Sunni Ali as a sorcerer and "sorcerer king"
There was a rivalry for power between Askiya Musa and his brothers
A long lasting legacy: Songhai emporer and Gao made a west-African statue that lasted for 900 years.
Askiya Dawud was regarded as one of Songhai's 3 greatest rulers alongside Musa.
Lasted 33 years; 1549-1582
This book is meant for a younger audience. In tomb finds there was many iron weapons found like spear head and knives
Axum had lots of ships for trade
They started producing coins around 270A.D.
The coins were issued in gold, silver , and bronze
They built very elaborate temples "Columbia Project on Asia in the core Curriculum; Asia is western and world history; a guide for teaching" - Ainslie T. Embree and Carol Gluck An Lushan rebellion
The Changan capitol
Cultural exchange between nations
Civil service exam
Elite social classes
Equal field system Expansion of the empire
Silk Road trade
Western contacts (Vietnam) Sogdian and Turkic An Lushan revolt Fall of the Tang dynasty divided China but in 960, general Taizu restored the 2 lands and claimed himself first Song emperor
Lasted 300 years (960-1279)
Song was smaller in size but more stable in everything else (quality work, government,etc)
Song never regained Western lands lost in 751 or Northern lands lost to Nomadic tribes.
They tried to buy peace with the North (paid annual amounts of silver,silk,and tea)
1100's- Jurchen conquered North China and made the Jin empire, forcing the Song down more south.
1127- Song empire ONLY ruled Southern China.
Song rulers made a new capitol at Hangzhou, a coastal city.
Despite bad military, there was rapid economic growth due to rich land.
The south became the "economic heartland of China" and rich off of the trade. "A History of East Africa" - E.S. Atieno Odhiambo, T.I. Ouso, J.F.M Williams Western Bantu people (1500-1900)
Western- The lake kingdoms: Bunyora, Toro, Buganda, Nkore
The Haya states
Rwanda and Burundi
Formation of the kingdoms of Rwanda and Rundi
The Abaluyia and the kingdom of Wanga
Eastern Bantu people (1500- 1850)
Eastern Bantu groups- Shamba, Pare, Chagga, Kikuyu, and Giriama
The Bantu of Western and Central Tanzania.
Western Bantu groups- Nyamwezi, Kimbu, Hehe
The coming of the Ngoni invasions.
Affects of the Ngoni on the Tanzanian people. Charlemagne was born on April 2, 742 A.D.
In 768 his younger brother, Carloman, died and Charlemagne inherited the kingdom
Nowadays France, Switzerland, Belgium, and The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and parts of Austria and Spain were all under the control of Charlemagne The Incans only lasted about 100 years
They had up to 12 million people
They ruled with great efficiency because of the intricate highway system
The roads backfired when the spanish used them to get to the heart of the civilization 700's Ghana had become a kingdom
Ghana began growing due to taxation towards traders who crossed through their territory
Trading of gold and salt were most important
Ghana had miners who dug shafts for gold and salt
800 Ghana had become an empire thanks to kings, a large army, taxes, and gifts from other surrounding places
Ghana had Islamic influences even to the extent of Ghana's rulers even changing over to Islam by the 11th century Bantu language comes from one of the hundreds of languages in the Niger-Congo
The Bantu language is the first language of 1/3 of all Africans
People who migrated in small groups to South Africa were the "Bantu-speaking peoples.
The "Bantu-speaking peoples" originated in Nigeria.
Starting from 2000 years ago, Bantu speakers began moving south and east.
Farming techniques required them to move around.
Technique is called slash and burn- a patch of forest is cut down and burned and the ashes mix into the soil making it fertile for only a short period of time.
As they moved they adapted different skills and became more advanced.
Moving east, the started herding sheep, goats, and cattle.
Bantu most likely brought the tech. of iron smelting with them.
They moved into places with high and low populations. (The BaMbuti and San)
They faced many differences while moving, like territory battles, different languages, methods of living, and adapting to the area. Mongols and Chinese decided to keep their identities separate, laws different, and living spaces apart
During the rule of Kublai Khan the trade routes prospered because Mongols were peaceful
Trading iteams for other iteams from the chinease such as printing, gunpowder, the compass, paper currency, and playing cards
When Kublai Khan's rein was coming to an end the empire slowly fell
Khan sent many people on risky explorations to different places in an attempt to expand there land but many lives were lost
Khan's army strength slowly decreased as they lost many battles
Yuan dynasty overthrown when Khan died in 1294
With the fall of the Yuan dynasty a domino effect hit the Mongol Empire which then died also This book is meant for a much older audience Africa is significant to the United States because Africa basically laid down the foundation for any civilization/country we have today. It gave us the basics to war, religion, language, trade, and food, which is what it takes to survive so without Africa we would have had a lot larger of a struggle. "Ancient Ethiopian City of Aksum or Axum." Ancient Ethiopian City of Aksum or Axum. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://wysinger.homestead.com/aksum.html>. "Charlemagne | King of the Franks | Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire." Charlemagne | King of the Franks | Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html>. "Inca Empire." Inca Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://mysite.du.edu/~ajenniso/IncaEmpire.html>. "Ghana Empire." Ghana Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mapsofworld.com/mali/history/ghana-empire.html>. The Ghana Empire was one of the most prominent empires of Western Africa
Was at its peak between 750-1076 A.D.
Drought conditions affected the economy greatly
Almoravid Muslims invaded which caused the downfall of the empire