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Transcript of Concept Map
"Scout" Jeremy "Jem"
Finch Charles Baker
"Dill" Harris Calpurna Attics
Alabama "You will never really
understand a person until you
consider things from their point
of view- until you climb into
his skin and walk around
in it"(Lee, 39). Robert E. Ewell Arthur "Boo"
Radley "Boo was about six-and-a-half feet
tall, judging from his tracks; he
dined on raw squirrels and any
cats he could catch, that's why
his hands were
bloodstained-" (Lee, 16). "She was all angles and bones; she was nearsighted; she squinted; her hand was wide as a bed slat and twice as hard. She was always ordering me out of the kitchen, asking me why I couldn't behave as well as Jem when she knew he was older, calling me home when I wasn't ready to come home" (Lee, 7). "Dill was a curiosity. He wore blue linen shorts
that buttoned to his shirt, his hair was snow
white and stuck to his head like a duckfluff; he
was my senior but I towered over him" (Lee, 9). Miss Maudie
Atkinson "Miss Maudie puzzled me. With most of her
possessions gone and her beloved yard a shambles,
she still took a lively and cordial interest in Jem's
and my affairs" (Lee, 97). Tom Robinson "Maybe I can tell you," said Miss Maudie. "If your father's anything, he's civilized in his heart. Marksmanship's a gift of God, a talent - oh, you have to practice to make it perfect, but shootin's different from playing the piano or the like. I think maybe he put his gun down when he realized that God had given him an unfair advantage over most living things" (Lee, 130). Mrs. Henry
Lafayette Dubose "Mrs. Dubose lived two doors up
the street from us; neighborhood
opinion was unanimous that
Mrs. Dubose was the meanest
old women who ever
lived" (Lee, 46). Mockingbird White Camellia " -I wanted you to see what
real courage is, instead of getting
the idea that courage is a man with
a gun in his hand. It's when
you know you're licked before you
begin but you begin anyway and
you see it through no matter
what" (Lee, 149). "Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit 'em, but remember it's a sin to kill a mockingbird"
That was the only time I ever heard Atticus say
it was a sin to do something, and I asked Miss Maudie about it. “Your father’s right,” she said.
“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make
music for us to enjoy . . . but sing their hearts
out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to
kill a mockingbird.” (Lee, 119). Courage Fairness “They’re certainly entitled to think that,
and they’re entitled to full respect
for their opinions,” Atticus said, “but
before I can live with other folks I’ve got
to live with myself. The one thing
that doesn’t abide by majority
rule is a person’s conscience” (Lee, 139-140). Morals Innocence "'She said she was going to leave this world
beholden to nothing and nobody. Jem, when you're sick as she was, it's alright to take anything to
make it easier, but it wasn't alright for her. She
said she meant to break herself of it before she
died, and that's what she did'" (Lee, 148). Overcomig
Obstacles Prejudice Mr. Dolphus
Raymond To Kill A Mockingbird
Harper Lee Mayella Ewell "Tom Robinson's powerful shoulders rippled under his thin shirt. He rose to his feet and stood with his right hand on the back of his chair. He looked oddly off balance, but it was not from the way he was standing. His left arm was fully twelve inches shorter than his right, and hung dead at his side. It ended in a small shriveled hand, and from as far away as the balcony I could see that it was no use to him" (Lee, 248). "-people like the Ewell lived as guest of the county in prosperity as well as in the depths of a depression. No truant officers could keep their numerous offsprinmg in school; no public health officer could free them from congenital defects, carious worms, and the diseases indigenous to filthy surroundings" (Lee, 227). "A young girl walked to the witness stand. As she raised her hand and swore that the evidence she gave would be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help her God, she seemed somehow fragile-looking, but when she sat facing us in the witness chair she became what she was, a thick-bodied girl accustomed to strenuous labor" (Lee, 239). "There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people: Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself" (Lee, 6). Mr. Heck
Tate Miss Stephanie
Courtroom "'Cry about the simple hell people give
other people - without even thinking. Cry
about the hell white people give colored folks,
without even stopping to think that
they're people, too'" (Lee, 269). "'Wh - oh yes, you mean why do I pretend?
Well, it's very simple,' he said. 'Some folks
don't - like the way I live. Now I could say
the hell with 'em, I don't care if they don't
like it, right enough - but I don't say the
hell with 'em, see?'" (Lee, 268). "We asked Miss Maudie to elucidate:
she said Miss Stephanie seemed to
know much about the case she might
as well be called to testify" (Lee, 213). Mr. Link Deas Aunt
Alexandra Judge Taylor Mr. Walter
Cunningham Good vs. Evil Moral Education Social Inequality Mr. Gilmer "The Maycomb County courthouse was faintly reminiscent of Arlington in one respect: the concrete pillars supporting its south roof were too heavy for their light burden. The pillars were all that remained standing when the original courthouse burned in 1856. Another courthouse was built around them. But for the south porch, the Maycomb County courthouse was early Victorian, presenting an unoffensive vista when seen from the north" (Lee, 216-217). "Judge Taylor looked like most judges I had ever seen: amiable, white-haired, slightly ruddy-faced, he was a man who ran his court with an alarming informality - he sometimes propped his feet up, he often cleaned his fingernails with his pocket knife. In long equity hearings, especially after dinner, he gave the impression of dozing, an impression dispelled forever when a lawyer one deliberately pushed a pile of books to the floor in a desperate effort to wake him up" (Lee,220). " 'So it took an eight-year-old child to bring 'em to their senses, didn't it?' said Atticus. 'That proves something - that a gang of wild animals can be stopped, simply because their still human. Hmp, maybe we need a police force of children... you children last night made Walter Cunningham stand in my shoes for a minute. That was enough' " (Lee, 210). "He blew out his breath patiently. 'I - it's like this,
Scout,' he muttered. 'Atticus ain't ever whipped
me since I can remember. I wanta keep it
that way" (Lee, 75). " 'The most ridiculous example I can think of is that the people who run public education promote the stupid and idle along with the industrious - because all men are created equal, educators will gravely tell you, the children left behind suffer terrible feelings of inferiority. We all know all men are not created equal in the sense some people would have us believe - some people are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity because they're born with it, some men make more money than others, some ladies make better cakes than others - some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men' "
(Lee, 274). "He jerked his head at Dill: 'Things haven't caught up with that one's instinct yet. Let him get a little older and he won't get sick and cry. Maybe things'll strike him as being - not quite right, say, but he won't cry, not when he gets a few years on him' " (Lee, 269). "I don't know, but they did it before and they did it again tonight and they'll do it again and when they do it-seems that only children weep" (Lee, 285). " 'Yes, suh. I felt right sorry for her, she seemed to try more'n the rest of 'em - '
'You felt sorry for her, you felt sorry for her?' Mr. Gilmer seemed ready to rise to the ceiling. The witness realized his mistake and shifted uncomfortably in the chair. But the damage was done. Below us, nodoby liked Tom Robinson's answer. Mr. Glimer paused a long time to let it sink in" (Lee, 264). " 'That old Mr. Gilmer doin' him thataway,
talking so hateful to him - '
'Dill that's his job. Why, if we didn't have
prosecutors - well, we couldn't have defense
attorneys, I reckon" (Lee, 265-266). " 'I just want the whole lot of you to know one thing right now. That boy's worked for me eight years an' I ain't had a speck o'trouble outa him. Not a speck' " (Lee, 261) " 'I picks for Mr. Link Deas.'
'Were you picking cotton in November?'
'No suh, I works in his yard fall an' wintertime. I works pretty steady for him all year round, he's
got a lot of peacan trees'n things' " (Lee, 255). " '...you've got to do something about her,' Aunty was saying. 'You've let things go on too long, Atticus, too long.' " (Lee, 182) " 'Don't you mutter at me, boy! You hold up your head and say yes ma'am. Don't guess you feel like holding it up, though, with your father what he is.'
Jem's chin would come up, and he would gaze at Mrs. Dubose with a face devoid of resentment. Through the weeks he had cultivated an expression of polite and detached interest, which he would present to her in answer to her most blood-curdling inventions" (Lee,146). "Walter Cunningham's face told everybody in the first grade he had hookworms. His absence of shoes told us how he got them. People caught hookworms going barefooted into barnyards and hog wallows. If Walter had owned any shoes he would have worn them the first day of school then discarded them until mid-winter. He did have on a clean shirt and neatly mended overalls" (Lee, 25). Narrator “‘But there is one way in this country in which all men are created equal - there is one human institution that makes a pauper the equal of a Rockefeller, the stupid man the equal of Einstein, and the ignorant man the equal of any college president. That institution, gentlemen, is a court, It can be the Supreme Court of the United States or the humblest J.P. court in the land, or this honorable court which you serve. Our courts have their faults, as does any human institution, but in this country our courts are the great levelers, and in our courts all men are created equal’” (Lee, 274). “This was news, news that put a different light on things: Atticus had to, whether he wanted to or not. I thought it odd that he hadn't said anything to us about it - we could have used it many times in defending him and ourselves. He had to, thats why he was doing it, equaled fewer fights and less fussing. But did that explain the towns attitude? The court appointed Atticus to defend him. Atticus aimed to defend him. That’s what they didn’t like about it. It was confusing” (Lee 218). "But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people: Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself" (Lee, 6). "Mr. Tate was the sheriff of Maycomb County. He was as tall as Atticus, but thinner.He was long-nosed, wore boots with shinny metal eye holes, boot pants and a lumber jacket. His belt had a row of bullets sticking in it. He carried a heavy riffle. When he and Atticus reached the porch, Jem opened the door" (Lee, 125). "Lula stopped, but she said, 'You ain't got no business bringin' white chillun here - they got their own church, we go our'n. It is our church, ain't it, Miss Cal?'
Calpurnia said, 'It's the same God ain't it?' " (Lee, 158). "He gently released my hand, opened the door , went inside and shut the door behind him. I never saw him again" (Lee, 373). "Atticus disengaged himself and looked at me. 'What do you mean?'
'Well i'd be sort of like shootin' a mockingbird, wouldn't it?'
Atticus put his face in my hair and rubbed it... Before he went inside the house, he stopped in front of Boo Radley. 'Thank you for my children, Arthur,' he said" (Lee, 370). "Tom Robinson shut his eyes tight. 'He says you goddamn whore, I'll kill ya' " (Lee, 260). From reading this story, I can infer that Bob Ewell sexually and physically abuses his daughter. Maycomb doesn't have to be a predigest community, it was their ancestors and way of being brought up that made it that way. Atticus believes that everyone is equal in any situation, but even more so when they are brought upon in court. Scouts "lesson" in the story. She realizes things from Boo's point of view. When Boo was younger, he had gotten in some trouble and his father punished him pretty bad. Metaphorically, his father "shot the mockingbird" resulting in Boo being corrupted for the rest of his life. Mrs. Dubose taught Jem a valuable lesson that no matter what people say about you or your family, you remain a gentlemen no matter what. " 'I go to school with Walter,' I began again. 'He's your boy ain't he? Ain't he sir?' " (Lee, 205). The Cunninghams are very poor farmers that live in Maycomb. They once needed law help, and couldn't afford it so Atticus helped the family while getting paid through food instead of money. Mr. Link Deas shows his fairness by making the statement that he has never seen a speck of trouble out of Tom. Being a white man, he doesn't have to say anything nice about Tom, but he shows compassion and a bit of liking towards Tom. Even though Cal is black, she is accepted by a white family. This has somehow impacted her to be fair to both whites and blacks. She does not judge. Atticus is a very fair man, with great morals and courage. He teaches his kids to be the best they can be and that everyone is equal. He does things to please himself, not others. He tries to keep his kids innocent, but doesn't exclude them from the outside world. Miss Caroline
Fisher "Miss Caroline was no more than twenty-one. She had bright auburn hair, pink cheeks, and worn crimson fingernail polish. She also wore high-heeled pumps and a red-and-white striped dress. She looked and smelled like a peppermint drop" (Lee, 21). "She boarded across the street one door down from us in Miss Maudie Atkinson's upstairs front room, and when Miss Maudie introduced us to her, Jem was in a haze for days" (Lee, 21). " 'Now you tell your father not to teach you any more. It's best to begin reading with a fresh mind. You tell him I'll take over from here and try to undo the damage - ' " (Lee, 23). "I never understood her preoccupation with heredity. Somewhere, I had received the impression that Fine Folks were people who did the best they could with the sense they had, but Aunt Alexandra was of the opinion, obliquely expressed, that the longer a family had been squatting on one patch of land the finer it was" (Lee, 173). I drew a bead on him, remembered what Atticus had said, then dropped my fists and walked away, 'Scout's a cow - ard!' ringing in my ears. It was the first time I ever walked away from a fight" (Lee, 102). "Our battles were epic and one-sided. Calpurnia always won, mainly because Atticus always took her side. She had been with us ever since Jem was born, and I had felt her tyrannical presence as long as I could remember" (Lee, 7). Calpurnia wasn't as "evil" as Scout thought at the time. Cal was always doing what was best for Scout, but Scout didn't realize it at the time because she never got her way. " The doors of the Radley house were closed on weekdays as well as Sundays, and Mr. Radley's boy was not seen again for 15 years" (Lee, 13). "Apparently deciding that it was easier to define primitive baptistry than closed communion, Miss Maudie said: 'Foot-washers believe anything that's pleasure is a sin. Did you know some of 'em came out of the woods one Saturday and passed by this place and told me me and my flowers were going to hell?' "(Lee, 59). "Miss Maudie grinned. 'Thank you ma'am. Thing is, foot-washers think women are a sin by definition. They take the Bible literally, you know' " (Lee, 59). "He stood there until nightfall, and I waited for him. When we went in the house I saw he had been crying; his face was dirty in the right places, but I thought it odd that I had not heard him" (Lee, 84). " Atticus sighed. 'I'm simply defending a Negro - his name's Tom Robinson. He lives in that little settlement beyond the town dump. He's a member of Calpurnia's church, and Cal knows his family well. She says they're clean-living folks. Scout, you aren't old enough to understand some things yet, but there's been some high talk around town to the effect that I shouldn't do much about defending this man. It's a peculiar case - it won't come to trail until summer session" (Lee, 100). "Aunt Alexandra was fanatical on the subject of my attire. I could not possibly hope to be a lady if I wore breeches; when I said I could do nothing in a dress, she said I wasn't supposed to be doing things that required pants" (Lee, 108). " 'You know what's going to happen as well as I do, Jack, and I hope and pray I can get Jem and Scout through it without bitterness, and most of all without catching Maycomb's usual diesese. Why reasonale people go stark raving mad when anything involving a Negro comes up, is something I don't pretend to understand. . .' " (Lee, 117). " 'My sister ain't dirty and I ain't scared of you,' although I noticed his knees shaking" (Lee, 141). " 'Mrs. Dubose was a morphine addict,' said Atticus. 'She took it as a pain killer for years' " (Lee, 147). " 'What's rape?' I asked him that night"(Lee, 180). "Atticus said nothing. I looked aroung and up at Mr. Cunningham, whose face was equally impassive. Then he did a peculiar thing. He squated down and took me by both shoulders.
'I'll tell him you said hey, little lady,' he said' " (Lee, 206) " 'Always does. He likes 'em better'n he likes us, I reckon. Lives by himself way down near the county line. He's got a colored women and all sorts of mixed chillun' " (Lee, 214). " '... Mr. Ewell came in, very excited he was, and said get out to his house quick, some nigger'd raped his girl' " (Lee, 223). " 'Mr. Finch, if you was a nigger like me, you'd be scared, too' " (Lee, 261). " 'They shot him,' said Atticus. 'He was running. It was during their exercise period. . .' " (Lee, 315). " 'Tom, did you rape Mayella Ewell?'
'I did not, suh' " (Lee, 260) Point of View:
First Person - Limited Jem finally learned his lesson to always be a gentlemen no matter what. Jem's innocence stiffened up as the story went on. He slowly got maturer and maturer up till the Tom Robinson case where he finally realized that the world is a cruel place. Scout showed courage without
even knowing she did. Boo's father corrupted him from the reality of life and scarred Boo for life resulting in Boo's nervousness of the world. Tom was the "shot mockingbird" Atticus was a very fair man, who didn't judge people based on their race. So even though all odds were against him, he was going to try his hardest to win this case. Miss Maudie, even though she might not have realized it, taught the kids many valuable lessons about people and her optimism on life. Mr. Ewell was very predigest. But I personally think that because he was the lowest of the whites, it made him more predigest against blacks. The Cunninghams were poor farmers, making them lower on the Social Scale. From my understanding, even though the court system is "fair" the jury will never vote a black against a white family. Aunt Alexandra bases her opinion about people based on their families, not them as people individually.