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Unit 4: The Early Modern World 1450-1750

Who or what is responsible for bringing the world into modernity?

Anthony Mers

on 27 February 2017

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Transcript of Unit 4: The Early Modern World 1450-1750

Unit 4: The Early Modern World 1450-1750
father of scholasticism
-emphasized logic and reason taught by Aristotle
-synthesizes logic and faith
Kingdom of
centered on a rebirth of the "Classics" & the study of humanism
humanism= the proper study of man IS man paradigm in Europe shifts from "City of God" (divine/supernatural) to the "City of Man" (human nature)
church's view on business changed by Acquinas to justify commerce, trade and business so long as it is "just"
the arts
School of Athens
Raphael 1510
How does it demonstrate Renaissance ideals?
New Directions in philosophy & learning:
Renaissance- "rebirth" in art, thought, manners, sensibilities following "Dark Ages"
Result of re-establishment with Greco-roman texts translated by Christians (preserved by Arabs in post-classical era)
Thomas Acquinas:
Sistine Chapel
Petrarch: "Father of Humanism"
-priest, latin scholar, poet, writer
-"The Prince"
-ends justifies
-considered with whats effective,
not whats morally right
-breaks away
from church
-came to be known for trickery
and double dealing
Printing press: Johannes Gutenberg
increased availability of written work
Essential Question:
In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European
-Created a
within Catholic Christendom
-Gave some kings and princes a justification for their own
independence from the church
and an opportunity to gain the lands and taxes previously held by the church
-Religious difference led to sectarian violence, to war, and ultimately to peaceful coexistence
Successful challenge to the immense prestige and power of the pope and established church
encouraged a skeptical attitude toward authority and tradition
Fostered religious individualism
as people were encouraged to
read and interpret the scriptures
themselves and seek salvation w/o the church
Erasmus and Christian Humanism:
-Best known Christian Humanist
-"the philosophy of Christ"
-meant to show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than achieve salvation
-He did not wish to break from the church; just to reform it
-Criticized monks in his work "In Praise of Folly"
Protestant Reformation:
-The major goal of Humanism in Northern Europe was to reform Christendom
-Martin Luther's religious reforms led to the emergence of Protestantism
-Christian Humanists believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves
-They wanted to reform the Catholic Church
-This reform would occur through the development of inner piety, or religious feeling, based on studying the works of Christianity ; not rules and rituals
Church Corruption:
>Church officials seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties, especially on achieving...
SALVATION-acceptance into heaven
>As a result, obtaining salvation became almost mechanical...like by collecting relics or buying indulgences
>Venerating saints could gain indulgences- release from all or part of punishment for sins
-Church far too interested in political matters as opposed to spiritual
>Between 1450 & 1520 a series of Popes failed to meet the church's spiritual needs. They were more concerned w/ political interests of the Papal States. Julius II "the warrior Pope" even led armies against enemies of the church.
"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs!"
-Martin Luther was a monk and a professor
at the University of Wittenberg, where he lectured on the Bible
-Through his study of the Bible, Luther came to reject the Catholic teaching that both faith and good works were necessary for salvation.
-He believed human deeds were powerless to affect God and that salvation came from FAITH alone
"I do not accept the authority of Popes and councils...My conscience is captive to the word of God. Here I stand and I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen"
April 18th, 1521
-provided the
urban middle classes
a new religious legitimacy for their growing role in society
-Common people's expression of
opposition to the whole social order
Less impact on the lives of women
, even though it did stimulate female education and literacy, even if there was little space for women to make use of it outside the family.
Lutheranism became the first Protestant faith!
-Diet/Edict of Worms made Luther outlaw
-Protected by local lords
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre
Divorce 50% in the U.S.?
Get with me for Vegas
odds baby...50% die!!!
The Reformation in
-motivated by politics,
not religion
-King Henry VIII wanted
to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, whom he thought could not bare him a son.
-Pope was unwilling to annul his marriage & Henry turned to England's courts
-Granted by Archbishop of Canterbury
Henry then married Anne Boleyn
who was crowned Queen and gave birth to a......girl!!!!
The break from Rome and the Catholic Church was centuries in the making. It was only accelerated by the need for Henry's male heir.
-The land that the Catholic Church owned on English soil bothered many Englishmen.
-The taxes that they had to pay to Rome did not seem right.
-England est. The Church of England (Anglican) and names the King Head of the Church
Huguenots = French Calvinists vs. Roman Catholics
30 Years War
The Scientific Revolution: What was revolutionary about the scientific revolution?
The ideas of the Scientific Rev. and
the Enlightenment laid the foundation
for a modern worldview based on
rationalism and secularism.
Enlightenment thought led some rulers
to advocate such
natural rights
equality before the law and freedom of
**Formation of the U.S. based on these ideas
Rationalism = Reason is the
chief source of knowledge
Louis XIV: "The Sun King" center of the French people and source of light to all his people (Copernicus??)
Created the Royal Academy of Science
Andreas Vesalius wrote "On the Fabric of the Human Body," which presented a careful and accurate examination of human anatomy.
Galileo wrote in 1622 accounts of his
observations with the telescope:
"The Starry Messanger"
Nicholas Copernicus
First to argue that the sun, not the Earth,
was the center of the universe.
Galileo is often called the
"father of modern physics."
-Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of
in 1633. During his last years, Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he
spent the remainder of his life under house arrest
, dying from natural causes on Jan. 8th, 1642.
On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II
expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled
, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture.
Background to the Revolution
The study of
in the Renaissance contributed to the scientific achievements of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

The great scientists of the day believed that
the secrets of nature were written in the language of mathematics.

Universal Law of Gravitation:
-Showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe.
The Enlightenment:
Warm-up question:
-What was the Renaissance and who was involved?
-What common zeitgeist accompanied the Renaissance and influenced the birth of the Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment?
Age of Reason
Salons of Paris
Was the Age of Reason
a reasonable age?
Religion in perspective...
After reading Van Doren's
analysis of Mozart's Don
Giovanni, justify the need
for religion to counter the
secular nature of reason.
Reason in perspective...
After reading the story of
Donat Calas, justify the need
for an age of reason to counter
intolerance and injustice.
Divine Right of Kings
-Religion based theory
-Oppresive by nature bc
humans naturally evil (Hobbes)
Louis XIV & Peter the Great
Edict of Nantes
St. Petersburg
-Controlled chaos
Baroque (odd/complex)
-Science/Reason based theory
-Progressive by nature because
humans are naturally rationale
and desire liberty & justice (Locke)
- secular over faith, emphasis on the Classics
Scientific Revolution
- seeking truth through reason (Newton)
Universe governed by
natural laws (gravity)
apply reason to life in the areas of philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues
using 5 basic ideas...
regarded as a divine force, the absence of intolerance, bigotry, or prejudice in one's thinking
natural = good & reasonable, laws universal just like gravity (ie. economics)
living by natures laws leads to happiness, don't have to wait for the afterlife
society and humankind could be perfected, through scientific approach
society could be set free (England)
philisophes in France faced restrictions on speech, religion, trade, and even travel
-Imprisoned in the Bastille in France twice
-Mocked the laws and customs of France
-Considered a "citizen of the world"
-Used his writings to combat prejudice, superstition, and intolerance.

This was much needed in the violent religious climate following the Reformation.
-Wrote the "Treatise on Toleration"...

"I do not agree with what you have to say, but...I'll defend to the death your right to say it."
"Ecrasez l'infame!!!" "Crush the infamous thing!!!"
-Paris= cultural/intellectual
center of Europe
-Wealthy hostesses invite poets,
writers to a refined convo
-Madame Geoffrin
"She taught me to think, and made
me reason; she taught me to know
men, and made me say what I thought"
Diderot- Wrote the first Encyclopedia sponsored by Madam Geoffrin; French King
Louis XV censored many of the writings
Scientific Advancements:
-Science becomes a fad...people kept telescopes and microscopes in their home for leisure
-Oxygen discovered by Joseph Priestley and named by Antoine Lavoisier
-Nature of electricity discovered by Ben Franklin
-Geography: James Cook explored and charted Pacific, Australia and New Zealand
-First vaccine created for smallpox, inoculation
Baroque- odd and complex
Bach & Handel
Classic: late 1700's
Unity, clarity & balance
Mozart, Beethoven (worlds greatest
composer...leads Europe to
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
-Author of "The Social Contract"
-"Man is born free, yet everywhere
he is in chains."
-liberty is a natural birthright
-Only legit govt is one that ruled
with the consent of the people
-Popular sovereignty: the general
will of all the people should be
sovereign, or dominant.
Enlightened Despotism:
Favored reason & progress based on
the following principles:
-religious tolerance
-economic reform
-legal reform
-justified their rule by usefulness;
not divine right
-Held absolute power but tried
to rule for the good of the people
Frederick II The Great (1712-1786)
-intelligent, musical, writer and
friend of Voltaire
-Eventually fell out of favor with
Voltaire after having him arrested
-Liberal and humane opinions
-Granted relig. freedoms to Cath/
Protestants, not Jews
-Reduced use of torture
-Allowed freedom of press
-Disagreed with serfdom,
but did nothing about it.
-"first servant of the state"
Catherine the Great (1729-1796)
-Also friend to Voltaire
-German, but wed the Grand Duke of Russia
-Had her husband arrested (and maybe killed)
-Attempted to listen to the people and draft
a constitution
-People rebelled and she crushed them
-Won territory on the Black Sea
-Partitioned Poland with Austria and Prussia to maintain balance of power
-"Enthroned in Russia, she desired nothing but the best for her country and tried to procure for her subjects happiness, liberty and wealth. She forgave easily and hated no one."
"Discover by ___________ and experience the ____________ that should operate in any situation; remove obstacles to their operation and the result will be ___________ toward ____________ & _____________.
"Enlightened author of 'On the Spirit of Laws,' _________________________ believed that government abuse could only be checked if there was a ______________________ between the ________________ branch, which carried out the laws, the _________________ branch, which created the laws, and the ____________________ branch which interpreted the laws. The Enlightened thinker _____________________ believed that the only legitimate gov't was one that ruled with the consent of the people, or _____________________________________.
"The laws of nature suggested to ________________ that _______________________ should be free of government regulation. A prosperous economy should be guided by peoples own _________________ which would lead to ______________
among people in the same business. Competing businesses naturally force people to make a better product that eventually eliminates businesses until there are enough to meet ___________ & _____________. In a ____________________, Smith believed that plenty of goods would be produced at the lowest possible price."
Constitutional Monarchy
-power of ruler limited by law
-Development of the Cabinet linked
monarchy to the parliament
-Leader of the majority party of parl.
became known as the Prime Minister
-Far from a democracy (only 5% voted,
wealthy landowners, no women)
-Britain owned profitable colonies
(Jamaica, St. Kitts, Barbados...sugar;
Canada...furs & timber; 13 colonies on
the Atlantic...cotton & tobacco)
-Britain taxed colonies that didn't have
representation in parliament
American Republic:
-Locke's right to overthrow abusive gov't
and other Enlightenment ideas led to indep.
-Created a federal gov't that shared power
between the central gov't and the states
-Great Compromise: Senate with equal rep
& House of Reps with rep. based on pop.
-3/5s Compromise: Every slave counted as
three fifths of a person
-Separation of Powers created 3 branches
-Bill of Rights added by Madison to protect
the rights of indiv. citizens against a strong
central gov't
-republic in form; democracy in principle
The Scientific Revolution was revolutionary because...
...it put an end to the Geocentric theory which had been the dominant view of W. Europe.
...the laws formulated by Isaac Newton showed that the universe was not propelled by angels/spirits but functioned on its own according to timeless principles that could be described mathematically.
...this suggested that knowledge of the universe could be obtained through human reason alone, without divine revelation.
...ABOVE ALL, it was revolutionary because it challenged educated people to question traditional views of the world and humans place in it.
The Enlightenment was revolutionary because...
...it applied a new approach to the conduct of human affairs, one that was rooted in human reason, skeptical of authority, and expressed in natural laws.
This challenged the aristocratic privileges of European society and the claims to authority of arbitrary governments who relied on the "divine right of kings" for legitimacy.
...challenged the authority of established religion, accusing the Church of fostering superstition, ignorance, and corruption.

...it also challenged older patterns of thinking through its promotion of the idea of progress. Human society, according to Enlightenment thinkers, was not fixed by tradition or divine command but could be changed, and improved, by human action guided by reason.
These ideas ultimately underpinned revolutionary movements in America, France, Haiti, and Latin America.
Madame Geoffin
Wrote "Discourse on Method"
which was the concept of mind
and matter; that reason is the
chief source of knowledge.
Father of modern
"I think,
therefore I am."
"Because the mind can
not be doubted, but the
physical world can, the
two must be radically
Deism: the universe was
like a clock. Created by
the Deity, but left to
function. Humans left to
solve their own problems.
What is a "comparison?"
Does George Carlin take a bold stance when comparing baseball to football? Does he analyze?
Law & Order
police procedural and legal drama on NBC
2nd longest TV series of all time
set and filmed in NYC
Follows a two-part approach
1st 30 minutes is the investigation of a crime and apprehension of a suspect
2nd 30 minutes is the prosecution of the defendant
the prompt (question)
Gather and analyze evidence
then ask questions about what prior knowledge you have about the prompt
an answer for the prompt and form a thesis (answer) for the prompt
Organize the evidence
, consider point of view, begin to plan a basic outline to build a convincing solution

Write you introduction and declare your
thesis statement
: answer to the question using a brief introduction to the evidence that will be presented in the essay to prove thesis

the evidence
by using a baby thesis and evidence to back it in each paragraph
Conclude your essay
by driving your thesis home in a convincing fashion
Free Response: The Comparative Essay
The comparative essay is one of 3 different styles of essay you will write for the AP test. It is the simplest in terms of structure, but of course, difficulty varies in terms of the prompt.

3-4 direct comparisons
You must


why at least one similarity/difference exists
As well as
In contrast
On the other hand
To the contrary
Thesis Statement:

Key to the entire essay. Remember a good thesis must...
Go beyond restating the prompt
Specify the topic
Answer the whole question (similarities/differences & categories)
Be more specific than question (the how)
Analyze the cause for differences/similarities (the why)
Use the whole intro paragraph to bring the thesis together (the structure):
Topic of the essay (who, what, where, when)
Analysis (must refer back to sims/difs)
Body Paragraphs:
Each paragraph should start with a baby thesis (analytical topic sentence) must link back to and expand on your thesis
Structure might look something like...
numbers= main points (categories)
letters= similarities and differences among societies
1 (A, B)
2 (A, B)
3 (A, B)
Least important BUT great opportunity for expanded core points
Link topic of the essay to the broader story of history
Why are your conclusions important? What does it show about history as a whole?
Basic Core
Historical skills and knowledge required to show competence.
1. Has acceptable thesis. 1 Point
(addresses comparison of the
issues or themes specified)

2. Addresses all parts of the 2 Points
of the question, though not
necessarily evenly or thoroughly.

(Addresses most parts of the (1)
question: for example, deals with
differences but not similarities)

3. Substantiates thesis with 2 Points
appropriate evidence.

(Partially substantiates thesis with (1)
appropriate evidence.)

4. Makes at least three relevant, 1 Point
direct comparisons between or
among societies.

5. Analyzes at least three reasons 1 Point
for a similarity or difference
identified in a direct comparison.

Expanded Core
Historical skills and knowledge required to show excellence. Expands beyond basic core of
1-7 Points. The basic core of a 0-2 Points
score of 7 must be achieved
before a student can earn expanded
core points.

 Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis
 Addresses all parts of the question (as relevant): comparisons, chronology, causation, connections, themes, interactions, content.
 Provides ample historical evidence to substantiate thesis.
 Relates comparisons to larger global context.
 Makes several direct comparisons consistently between or among societies.
 Consistently analyzes the causes and effects of relevant similarities and differences.

Subtotal 7 Points

Subtotal 2 Points
Compare and contrast the
of the Protestant Reformation to the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment in Europe and their
transforming effects on society
Scientific Revolution

Steps 1 & 2:
What characteristic of the Renaissance is first illustrated by Dante's Purgatorio and stems from the Gothic style?
-How is this different from the Byzantine style and "the City of God?"
What new style in painting, illustrated below, brings out realism through the use of the vanishing point?
Piero della Francesca's "Flagellation"...How does
this painting use perspective and what can be inferred from it's content?
Realism was the first characteristic of the
Renaissance...the Flagellation offers the 2nd
MATERIALISM (Individualism)!
"I am a citizen of no place, everywhere I am a stranger"
Spiritual muse (Medieval)
Use of Latin (Medieval)
Love of classical writing and simplicity/purity (Ren)
“You must read, you must persevere, you must sit up nights, you must inquire, and exert the utmost power of your mind. If one way does not lead to the desired meaning, take another; if obstacles arise, then still another; until, if your strength holds out, you will find that clear which at first looked dark.”
What had Boccaccio and Petrarch attempted to accomplish?
The Renaissance Man!
What does it mean?
What would it mean today?
Read the section of Van Doren entitled Renaissance Man and write your own open-ended questions in the margin.
Johann Gutenberg
Contact with the East
• Crusades

• prosperity thru trade routes

• demise of feudal system yet
well defended still,

• migration to the cities, independent allows freedom of commerce

• creative people interacted and
fed off each other
The Renaissance & Reformation
Chapter 17
Cultural Diffusion
Spreads North
Questioning the Church
The Elizabethan Age
indifference to or rejection of religion
live in and study this world, here & now
living life in preparation for the afterlife
new political and economic opportunities created interest in worldly things
ex: efforts to beautify cities
• the birth of banking

• capitalism->powerful merchant class, competition, well-funded, secular, urban lifestyles

• patrons of the arts
•the Medici
"everything that surrounds us is
our own work, the work of man:
all dwellings, all castles, all cities, all the edifices throughout the whole world, which are so numerous and of such quality that they resemble the works of angels rather than men. Ours are the paintings, the sculptures; ours are the trades sciences and philosophical systems."
Gianozza Manetti, 1452
What role did patrons play in the Renaissance?
Middle Ages
appears flat
appears 3-D
vanishing point
egg tempera
religious content
broad content
Ninja Artists
Giovanni Bellini
Leonardo da Vinci
Raphael Sanzio
El Greco



Benvenuto Cellini

As You Explore,
Consider these ideas...
intensity (color)
Choose an artist.
Find an image of one of his paintings.
Further Investigation:
link your observations to 2-3 ideas
use complete sentences
post image and observations to edmodo
German Painters
Flemish Painters
Bell Ringer: True of False??
During the Renaissance, patrons of the arts were people who frequented many art festivals.

The technique of perspective was used by Renaissance painters to show three dimensions on a flat surface.

The Renaissance, a movement started in Germany and lasted 300 years, brought about a growth of creativity in art, writing, and thought.

The general emphasis of the Renaissance movement was religious.

The Prince, by Machiavelli, stated that people are selfish and corrupt, and that a prince should be feared more than loved.

Some Renaissance writers wrote in the vernacular, or in the author's native language.

An intellectual movement called humanism focused on scientific informations about the human body.

"Renaissance men" were men who mastered many fields of endeavor.
Albrecht Dürer
Hans Holbein
by the late 1400s, the Northern Renaissance begins!!
Urban Revival = $$$
to patronize arts
rising national monarchies in France, England, Spain, and Portugal
Northern Renaissance
Increased Trade
French invade Italy & people flee to Northern Europe
= increased contact with Renaissance ideas
Feudal nobility and medieval Church decline
= less resistance to new ideas
Jan van Eyck
Pieter Bruegel
Christian Humanists = use humanism to reform the Church
= inspire people to live more Christian lives
= promoted education and founded schools for boys and girls
Desiderius Erasmus
wrote "The Praise of Folly," a satire (1509)
believed in a Christianity of the heart
everyone reads the Bible = society improves
Thomas More
wrote "Utopia," in Latin (1516)
an ideal society, Greek for "no place"
How do these ideas differ from Machiavelli's assumptions on human nature??
mid 1500s, English Renaissance
Queen Elizabeth I was well educated and supported the arts
William Shakespeare
wrote plays in English
performed at the Globe Theatre, London
drew from the classics for inspiration and plot
his works are still widely
combined technologies to speed up the printing process
Christine de Pizan
widowed at 25
published poems and songs to support her family, written in vernacular
commissioned to write the biography of King Charles V
The Book of the City of Ladies
heroines of the past
"If it were customary to send little girls to school and teach them the same subjects as are taught to boys, they would learn just as fully and would understand the subtleties of all arts and sciences."
Laura Cereta
Italian Humanist
educated at a convent
published one book of letters
thoughts and opinions on the life of women, rights to education, and slavery in marriage
wrote in Latin
heavily criticized
"All history is full of such examples. My point is that your mouth has grown foul because you keep it sealed so that no arguments can come out of it that might enable you to admit that nature imparts one freedom to all human beings equally-to learn."
Moderata Fonte
Venetian, wrote in vernacular
raised and educated by her grandfather
married an attorney who gave her complete control over her dowry
finished writing "The Worth of Women" just before dying
dialog between 7 women of various ages and experiences
focus on men's hostility toward women and possible cures for it
"Look what a good deal marriage is for women! They lose their property, lose themselves, and get nothing in return except children to trouble them and the rule of a man who orders them about at his will."
Who was Lady Anne Clifford? Where is she from? married? children?
What did she write about?
What do her writings reveal about the role of women during the Renaissance?
What was a woman's role during the Renaissance?
Renaissance Men
Renaissance Women
know the classics
be charming
have grace
speak several
create art
be witty
play music
write poetry
skilled rider
seek fame (popularity)
inspire art
loyal wife
bear children (male)
stay out of public life
Choose 2 vocabulary terms.
Write one sentence for each term.
German goldsmith
metal moveable type
Gutenberg Bible 1455
Publications on religion and astronomy caused controversy
enabled people to learn on their own instead of with a Master
1 book = 1+ yr.
various types of publications
Who was Albrecht Dürer?

How did he change art for people during the Renaissance?
Reformation Spreads
Martin Luther
The Protestant Reformation
Catholic Reformation
Download "socrative student" app on your device
A.) The Bible is the only authority
B.) Priesthood for all believers
C.) Salvation by faith alone
Bell Ringer!!!!
Name 3 references to the Reformation.
#1 Catherine of Aragon
at 16 (1501), married to Henry's brother Arthur, who dies in 1502
daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
marries Henry in 1509
1516 Mary is born, the only surviving child out of 6 pregnancies
1533 divorced
#2 Anne Boleyn
1526 Henry and Anne fall in love
1533 Anne is pregnant with Elizabeth, so they marry
Henry tires of Anne and accuses her of adultery
1536 Anne is beheaded by a French swordsman
#3 Jane Seymour
marry 11 days after Anne's death
1538 Edward is born
two weeks later, Jane dies, leaving Henry heartbroken
#4 Anne of Cleves
Henry chose to marry a German princess for political alliances (Protestant nation)
1540 they marry, despite Henry's horror when he meets her in person
they divorced 6 months later
#5 Kathryn Howard
19 year old cousin to Anne Boleyn,
Henry-age 49
1540 they are married
Henry is overweight and has a wound that won't heal, he cannot walk far
young and flirtatious Kathryn is bored by Henry
she is accused of adultery and beheaded by ax in 1542
#6 Katherine Parr
married in 1543
loving stepmother
cared for Henry until his death in 1547
Edward VI "The Boy King"
reigned from 1547-1553
died from consumption at age 16
on his deathbed, named Lady Jane Grey his successor, the "Nine Days' Queen"
"Bloody Mary" I
arrested and executed Lady Jane Grey
reigned from 1553-1558
1st Queen Regnant of England
restored the Catholic Church in England
banned the English Bible in 1555
280 Protestants burnt at the stake
married Prince Phillip of Spain (Hapsburg)
died in 1558 from influenza
Elizabeth I
"The Virgin Queen" reigned from 1558-1603
ruled during England's Golden Age
restored the Anglican Church
"Be ye ensured that I will be as good unto you
as ever a Queen was unto her people."
The Tudor Family Tree
1.) What angered Luther causing him to write his 95 Theses?

2.) List the 3 main ideas of Martin Luther's 95 Theses
Henry VIII
Divorced, beheaded, and died.
Divorced, beheaded, survived.
Who do you think had a better reason to break with the Church, Martin Luther, or King Henry VIII? Explain your answer.
John Calvin
the "elect"
John Knox
1.) Define Protestant.

2.) What is the Protestant church in England called?

3.) What is the main Protestant church in Germany called?
Counter Reformation
to help Catholics remain loyal
Ignatius of Loyola
Council of Trent
The Society of Jesus
= Jesuits
1.) founded schools
2.) converted non-Christians to Catholicism
3.) tried to stop the spread of Protestantism
Church's interpretation of the Bible is final
salvation through faith and good works
Bible and Church tradition hold authority
selling of indulgences is banned
Council of Trent
Martin Luther
95 Theses
Ignatius of Loyola
Henry VIII
John Calvin
Elizabeth I
Counter Reformation
Alexander the
"saper vedere"
forces of nature=unity
cosmos= restlessness + force
"Man is the measure
of all things."

spiritual center of all
"I take all knowledge
for my province."
contributed to the
scientific method
4 idols?
A.) The Bible is the only authority

B.) Priesthood for all believers

C.) Salvation by faith alone
A.) The Bible is the only authority

B.) Priesthood for all believers

C.) Salvation by faith alone
95 Theses...posted on the Wittenburg Church
So what caused the Reformation?
How did the Reformation
take shape in England?
Warm-up question:
"How many mortal sins are
committed in a day, how many in a week, how many in a month, how many in a year, how many in the whole course of life? They are well nigh numberless, and those that commit them must needs suffer endless punishment. Are you not willing, then, for the 4th part of a Florin, to obtain these letters by virtue of which you may bring, your divine and immortal soul safe and sound in to the land of paradise?"
Short Term Effects
Long Term Effects
Destruction of the "Invincible Armada"
Catholic Spain vs. Protestant England
Questioning the Scientific Revolution:

Mersville Townhall Discussion-
First, read ALL opening statements & decide if whose you will read to the whole class (10 mins)

Next, committee 1 will read their opening statement(s), explain key points of discussion and then open it up for whole "town" dailogue (10 mins)

Then, we will vote.

Repeat the last 2 steps for committees 2 & 3.
May Madness is here!!!!
So how exactly will the
debates be graded? What
is the format? Is it time to
freak out yet? YES!
Debate format is as follows:
Opening Statement (2min)
Opening Statement 2 (2min)
Rebuttal (1 min)
Rebuttal (1 min)
Closing Statement (1 min)
Closing Statement 2 (1 min)
Debate grades are based on the following criteria:
Opening Statement
brief self intro
ideas/contributions of your figure are...
supported by evidence
reasoned appropriately
Sign posting/transitions
Defends/Attacks effectively
Recognizes faulty reasoning and implements logical reasoning
May bring in new information if relevant
Closing Statement
Summarizes main points
Establishes superiority
Overall criteria:
1st Person Embodiment
Clear/confident delivery
Effective use of time
Avoid distracting mannerisms
Avoids generalizations
Effective use of persuasive appeals
Stays on point
Big debate tomorrow...

Does research by playing Assassin's Creed
Winners Circle
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)
-French nobleman
-studied history of Ancient Rome
and believed the fall due to the loss
of political liberties
-Championed the idea....separation of powers in which a govt is divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive & judicial
"When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person...there can be no liberty."
"Power should be a check to power." meaning that each branch should limit the power of the other 2 so no branch becomes a threat to liberty.
Champion of Economic liberty:
-"physiocrats" believed mercantilist ideas are wrong
-"laissez faire" economics believed in free trade with no government regulations
-Smith wrote "Wealth of Nations" which defended free market economy based on 3 natural laws:
1. Law of self-interest: People act for selfish reasons...bakers dont bake for hunger, but for money
2. Law of competition: Forces people to make a better product...bakers must compete with other bakers to make bread better and sell at a lower cost
3. Law of supply & demand: Supply=quantity available
when supply exceeds demand, price goes down while some businesses go out of business until there are just enough to meet demand
**Therefore, Smith said, only a free market economy, where natural laws were free to operate, allowed plenty of goods to be produced at the lowest possible price
a crime (murder)
Gather and analyze evidence
then ask questions of witnesses, family/friends & persons of interest
the criminal who did the crime and form a motive for the crime
Organize the evidence
, interview witnesses and prepare for trial
5th- In the courtroom, make your
opening statement:
Murderer used x weapon in y location to kill z with a motive and explanation of evidence that will prove assertion
Present evidence
and call witnesses to verify motive, location, ability to commit the crime, all showing unreasonable doubt
Closing statement
drives home the opening statement and jury is convinced the accused is guilty
AP Comparison Essay
Thesis Writing-Intro
Freaking out while
reading AP World
History Prompt...

Sees the words...
Imperial Rome!
1. Form a circle
2. Be prepared with questions stemming from essential question
3. Be respectful of others ideas/perspectives
4. Allow others to finish thoughts and don't interrupt
5. Speak up when no one else is talking...no raising hands
6. Be an active listener.
7. Use the sources as evidence to support your opinions

Socratic Seminar
Evaluate how such massive exploitation and abuse perpetrated by European Colonizers in the Western Hemisphere fit into European religious and cultural beliefs in the early modern period

, historical
is the reinterpretation of orthodox views on evidence, motivations, and decision-making processes surrounding a historical event.
refers either to the study of the methodology and development of "history" (as a discipline), or to a body of historical work on a specialized topic. Scholars discuss historiography topically – such as the "historiography of the British Empire," the "historiography of early Islam", or the "historiography of China" – as well as specific approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, a corpus of historiographic literature developed.
How much are historians influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—is a much debated question.

6 Degrees of Separation
Six degrees of separation is the theory that everyone and everything is
six or fewer steps away
, by way of introduction, from any other person, event or thing in the world, so that a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six steps. It was originally set out by Frigyes Karinthy and popularized by a play written by John Guare.
Therefore, your Unit 4 assessment is to
connect 2 items, four times, in six steps or fewer. You must include vocabulary in the links. You must give an elaborate explanation of each item.
Example: Link Confucianism to Adolf Hitler
1. Confucianism is a system of values that provided a codified socio-political structure for the dynasties that originated in China.
2. China, having lost the Mandate of Heaven following the fall of the Song Dynasty was occupied by the nomadic Mongols.
3. The Mongol Empire ruled various lands differently and extended an indirect rule to the Golden Khanate in Russia.
4. Russia was invaded by Hitler.

The Early Modern Era of "global trade emerged when all important populated continents" continuously traded in an interwoven web of globalization.
1. Link the Columbian Exchange to the Enlightenment.
2. Link Akbar to the Middle Passage.
3. Link "soft gold" to the Council of Trent.
4. Link the Tokugawa Shogunate to deism.
Link the Yellow Turban Rebellion to Henry VIII

You have been put in charge of a new country.
***What kind of economy?
Express your stream of consciousness on the following topics for your economic model:
How are peoples financial needs met?
What role do you or your govt take in your citizens daily lives?
What problems do you foresee as a result of your system?
Reference Marx and Smith in your system
(Recreate forbidden)
Social Reform Reflection:

What overall generalities can be made about socio-economic reform in the Industrial Age?
To what extent was social reform a product of pre-industrial conditions?
What common barriers did each regions movement face? How were they overcome if it all?
What form of action seemed to work best? Would that form of action work across all regions? Evidence?
Define mercantilism
Identify Siberia, the Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire, Spanish Philippines, the Netherlands, England, France, Portugal and Spain.
Shade in the European countries and their subsequent colonies the same color
Identify the source of wealth which European powers sought by placing a star over it.
Place an X over the trade routes denied to European nation-states. Write one word next to it that could explain why.
What enabled Europeans to colonize the Americas across the Atlantic? (list the reasons North of Europe)
Differentiate colonies in the Americas by region/colonizer and method of colonization.
Draw 2 arrows, one from Europe to America and vice versa...list the items of the Columbian Exchange along each arrow

Chapter 15: Global Commerce 1450-1750

What motivated European involvement in the world of Asian commerce?
Desire for spices, Chinese silk, Indian cottons, rhubarb for medicinal purposes, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires were in great demand
recovery of European civilization following the disaster of the Black Death of 14th C.
European resentment of the Muslim monopoly on Indian Ocean trade
continuation of the Crusades through Christian monarch Preston John
need to get gold and silver to pay for goods they desired
To what extent did the
Portuguese realize
their own goals in the
Indian Ocean?
trading post empire
only partially realized
controlled < half of Indian Ocean trade
by 1600 in steep decline
Difference b/w Span & Portuguese colonization of Philippines?
Spanish conversion of natives to Christianity
Dutch (Netherlands)
Est. 3 major trading settlements in India during the 17th C: Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. trading bases w/ permission from Mughal authorities
Focus on Indian cotton and specialized producers for the British market
TO what extent did the British and Dutch trading companies change the societies they encountered in Asia
Sought control of shipping/production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and mace.
Control was enforced violently and sale was limited to only the Dutch
Banda Islands- Dutch killed, enslaved, or left to starve almost all of the natives and replaced them with slave labor on nutmeg plantations.
Dutch policies shattered local policies and the people became impoverished
What was Japan's response to the Europeans whom they saw as a threat?
expelled Christian missionaries (execution/torture)
suppressed Christianity
Forbade Japanese from traveling abroad
Banned most European traders EXCEPT
the ___________
Why was the silver trade so historically important?
1st commodity exchanged on a global scale
Directly linked Americas to Asia via the Pacific
Steadily grew
Impact of worlds largest silver mine at Potosi?
Portrait of hell
Some natives had funerals for those drafted to work in the mine
Silver mines impact on Spain's position in Europe?
envy of its European rivals during the 16th C.
Pursue military/political ambitions
How did China's response to the global silver economy differ from Japans?
Shoguns allied w/ merchants to develop a market-based economy
Invested heavily in agricultural/industrial enterprises
Local/state authorities acted to protect and renew forests
Families practiced late marriages, contraception, abortion and infanticide.
Led to slow population growth, easing of ecological crisis, and a flourishing, highly commercialized economy.
Taxes accepted only in silver so that peasants hed to sell labor/products to acquire it
Chinese region became more regionally specialized. (silk decline)
Deforestation in Southern China to support commercial crops.
What may have increased the demand for furs in the Early Modern Era?
Little Ice Age
Describe the impact of the fur trade on North America native societies?

Positive Impact
Negative Impact
Exposed Native Americans to European diseases and generated warfare
Left Native Americans dependent on Euro goods without a corresponding ability to manufacture goods themselves
Brought alcohol into Indian societies, often with destructive effects.
Trade of pelts for goods of real value
Enhanced influence and authority of some NA Leaders
Ensured protection of NAs involved in the fur trade, for a time, from the kind of extermination, enslavement or displacement that was the fate of many other NAs
How did the North American and Siberian fur trades differ from each other? Common?
North America
Several Euro nations competed in North America
Obtained furs through commercial negotiations w/ Indian society
Russian authorities imposed tax/tribute payable in furs on men 18-50
Hostages taken if tribute not paid
Large-scale presence of private Russian hunters and trappers competing with Siberian counterparts
Driven by demands of the world market
Siberians and NAs both suffered from new diseases
Both became dependent on goods for which they traded fur
What was slavery like in the Islamic world?
Preference for female slaves
Some acquired military/political status
Most worked in owner's household, farm, shop
Smaller numbers in large-scale agricultural or industrial enterprises
What was distinctive about the Atlantic slave trade in the Americas?
Immense size of the traffic in slaves
Centrality to the economies of colonial America
Largely based on plantation agriculture
Treated slaves as a form of dehumanized property
Slaves lacked any rights in their societies
Slave status was inherited across generations
Slavery came to be identified wholly with "Africa" and "blackness"
What caused the Atlantic Slave trade to grow?
Why was slavery a source of labor?
Demand for sugar as sweetener over honey
Sugar required huge capital investment, tech and huge amounts of labor.
Slave labor=free labor
Why did Africa become the primary source of slave labor for plantation economies of the Americas?
Supply of Slavic slaves cut-off
Native Americans died too quickly
Marginal Europeans exempt due to Christianity
Africans were skilled farmers, had immunity and close and readily available
What role did the Europeans play in the unfolding of the Atlantic slave trade?
Enterprise in European hands from point of sale to the plantations
Exploited rivalries to obtain low cost
Guns they provided encouraged warfare
What role did the Africans play in the unfolding of the Atlantic slave trade?
In African hands from point of capture to the coast
What regions in the Americas had the largest destination of slaves in the 18th century?
The Caribbean and Brazil
In what ways did the Atlantic Slave trade transform African societies?
Slowed Africa's population growth
Stimulated little economic growth
Led to political disruption
Benin/Dahomey sought to gain from the trade

1. Has acceptable thesis. 1
2. Understands the basic meaning
of the documents (May
misinterpret one document). 1
3. Supports thesis with appropriate
evidence from all or all but one
(Supports thesis with appropriate
evidence from all but two
documents.) 2
4. Analyzes points of view in at
least two documents. 1
5. Analyzes documents by grouping
them in two or three ways,
depending on the question. 1
6. Identifies and explains the need
for one type of appropriate
additional document or source. 1
Analyze the
of the French Revolution:

Grouping- Economic
Docs: 2, 6, 7

Grouping- Social

Grouping- Political

Comparing Medieval and Early Renaissance Thought
Giotto (early 14th C)
religious (Medieval)
portrayal of depth (Ren)
Real people/situations (Ren)
Dante (1300)
Emphasized religious faith, romantic love, and Roman poetry (Medieval)
Use of vernacular (Ren)
Real people in true adventures (Ren)
Analyze the political, economic and social conditions that gave rise to the Renaissance.
To what extent does a society's support of the arts reflect its general prosperity and greatness?
What were considered to be Renaissance values?...What values of ours are reflected in our society by art, architecture, lit...?
Compare and contrast Medieval Art to that of the Renaissance

Guiding Questions:
When did the Middle Ages truly end? How do we know?
How should we periodize/label the time period after the Medieval Age?
Is the Renaissance sufficient or do we need to change it?
-Evidence that supports a
continuation of the Middles Ages
-Evidence that supports that the M
iddle Ages has come to an end
-Based on their section, should we truly call the period after the Middle Ages the
Renaissance or should it be labeled something else
? If so, what should it be called?
-According to your section,
is there a date
that you could identify that would signify the end of the Middle Ages?

Answer each of the following questions based on
Hobbes, Locke, James I and Rousseau
Who is each person? (Not just their name!)
When did each person live?
What was the
political climate
of where the person lived?
What did each person think about the
state of human nature/ability
of most people to govern?
type of government
did each person think is best? Explain why?!
What did each person think was the
source of political power?
How do you think #1, 2, and 3
influenced the authors opinions/beliefs?
James I
Compare & Contrast (C&C):
T Thesis (must be acceptable according to the prompt)
R Reasons for similarities AND differences through analysis (APRULE OF 3)
A Addresses all parts of the question
C Comparisons (relevant, direct; AP RULE OF 3)
E Evidence (used to support thesis; AP RULE OF 3)
"Both __________ and _____________________ ____________________________________________. However, while _________________________________, China __________________________________________. The difference/similarity most likely arose due to _________________________________________ "




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