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Transcript of Sirico_Lab_BES
If the student has difficulty learning by listening, then try…
Use of Visual
What is it like to have dyslexia?
During the lesson:
• Provide visuals via the board or overhead projector
• Use flash cards
• Have the student take notes and use coloured markers
• Teach the use of acronyms to help visualize lists
• Give explanations in small, distinct steps
• Provide written as well as oral directions
• Shorten the listening time required
• Provide written and manipulative tasks
Cases Studies and Strategies
Accommodations to Help Students with Dyslexia
Case study (1)
Before the lesson:
Pre-teach difficult vocabulary and concepts
State the objective, providing a reason for listening
Provide study guides/worksheets
Provide scripts / outlines
. Make the best out of it,
Serif fonts, with their ‘ticks’ and ‘tails’ at the end of most strokes (as found in traditional print fonts such as Georgia or Times New Roman), tend to obscure the shapes of letters, so sans-serif fonts are generally preferred. These types of fonts can lead to confusion with some letter combinations, such as “rn” and “m”.
Classwork and Taking Tests
STUDENTS WITH ADHD
Conducting the lesson
Teaching Students with ADHD
What teachers can do to help students with ADHD?
Successful programs for children with ADHD integrate the following three components:
MIUR - Prot.n. 4274
LINEE GUIDA PER L’INTEGRAZIONE SCOLASTICA DEGLI ALUNNI CON DISABILITA’
Prot. n. MIUR AOODRLO R.U. 1511
STRUMENTI D’INTERVENTO PER ALUNNI CON BISOGNI EDUCATIVI SPECIALI E ORGANIZZAZIONE TERRITORIALE PER L’INCLUSIONE SCOLASTICA
BISOGNI EDUCATIVI SPECIALI
nella didattica dell’inglese (Laboratorio)
Prof. Diego Sirico
Let's have a look at the guidelines
issued by the MIUR:
International Statistical Classification of Diseases
and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)
Disorders of psychological development (F80-F89)
• Get audiobooks through service like
a free online library for students with disabilities.
• Provide concept / mind maps.
• Use large-print text for worksheets.
• Simplify texts with key words.
• Provide coloured strips or bookmarks to follow
along when reading.
Give step-by-step instruction (oral and written).
Stick to consistent daily routines.
Use small group teaching.
Provide notes from the lesson, or organizers to fill in and follow along during the lesson.
Review skills daily.
Pre-teach new and important concepts.
Provide extra time for reading and writing.
Provide different ways to respond, like saying the answers, having larger spaces for writing, or circling an answer instead of filling in the blank.
Hand out letter and number strips for students to look at so they can see how to write correctly.
Provide sentence starters that show how to begin a written response.
Show examples of work that is correct to serve as a model.
Allow understanding to be demonstrated in different ways (oral reports, video presentations, posters, etc.).
A dyslexic child who finds the acquisition of these literacy skills difficult can also suffer a lot of anguish and trauma when they may feel mentally abused by their peers within the school environment, because they have a learning difficulty
Use a text reader (like a Reading Pen or text-to-speech software).
Partner up to study: one person writes while the other speaks, or they share the writing.
Class teachers may be particularly confused by the student whose consistent underachievement seems due to what may look like carelessness or lack of effort.
These children can be made to feel very different from their peers simply because they may be unable to follow simple instructions, which for others seem easy. It is a class teacher’s responsibility to provide an atmosphere conducive to learning for all pupils within their class.
In a positive and encouraging environment, a dyslexic child will experience the feeling of success and self-value.
In the class:
Give an outline of what is going to be taught in the lesson
End the lesson with a resume of what has been taught.
Check if he/she correctly writes down homework.
Make sure that messages and day to day classroom activities
are written down, and never sent verbally.
Make a daily check list for the pupil to refer to each evening.
Encourage a daily routine to help develop
the student’s own self-reliance and responsibilities.
Encourage good organizational skills by the use of
folders and dividers to keep work easily accessible and
in an orderly fashion.
Break tasks down into small easily
remembered pieces of information.
It is essential to see the pupil as a whole person, complete with individual strengths and weaknesses.
Dyslexics have many strengths: oral skills, comprehension, good visual spatial awareness/artistic abilities. More and more dyslexic children could become talented and gifted members of our schools if we worked not only with their specific areas of difficulty, but also their specific areas of strengths from an early age.
They have a right to help and support before they develop the dreadful sense of failure which is so insidious.
Class teachers dealing with dyslexic children need to be flexible in their approach, so that they can, as far as possible, find a method that suits the pupil, rather than expecting that all pupils will learn in the same way.
If the student has difficulty expressing himself verbally, then try…
To accept an alternate form of information sharing, such as the following:
Exhibits or showcases
Chart, graph, or table
Reviews of films
Charade or pantomime
Rewrite the student’s text
Record the student’s text
Allow a peer or parent to read text aloud to student
Shorten the amount of required reading
Look for same content in another medium (movie, filmstrip, digital audio)
Provide alternative methods for student to contribute to the group, such as role playing or dramatizing (oral reading should be optional)
Allow extra time for reading
Motivate the student
Be more concrete-using pictures and manipulatives
Provide highlighted material
If the student has difficulty reading written material, then try…
Accepting alternate forms of reports:
Recording of an interview
Allow more time
Provide a sample of what the finished paper should look like to help him organize the parts of the assignment
If the student has difficulty expressing himself in writing, then try…
If the student has difficulty spelling, then try…
Teach short, easy words in context:
Have students make flashcards and highlight the difficult spots on the word
Avoid penalizing for spelling errors
Hang words or post them on the board or wall, as constant visual cues
Before we get going, let’s clarify some key terms
STUDENTS WITHOUT A DIAGNOSIS CERTIFIED BY A.S.L.
- DM 27/12/2012 -
“Descrizione analitica della compromissione funzionale dello stato psico-fisico dell’alunno in situazione di handicap” (D.P.R. 24/02/1994). Alla D.F. provvede l’unità multidisciplinare composta dal medico specialista nella patologia segnalata, dallo specialista in neuropsichiatria infantile, dal terapista della riabilitazione, dagli operatori sociali in servizio presso l’A.S.L.
Documento, redatto successivamente alla D.F. che raccoglie la sintesi conoscitiva, riferita al singolo alunno, relativamente alle osservazioni compiute sullo stesso in contesti diversi, da parte di tutti i differenti operatori che interagiscono con lui: famiglia, scuola, servizi. Ha lo scopo di integrare le diverse informazioni già acquisite e indicare, dopo il primo inserimento scolastico, “il prevedibile livello di sviluppo che il bambino potrà raggiungere nei tempi brevi (sei mesi) e nei tempi medi (due anni)” (D.P.R. 24/2/94).
È redatto “congiuntamente dagli operatori dell’ A.S.L., dagli insegnanti curricolari e di sostegno e dall’operatore psicopedagogico, con la collaborazione della famiglia”
Written by the Cdc, it’s based on the DSA diagnosis by A.S.L.
For these students, the CdC has to draw up a
Drawing up contextual to the identification of the pupil with BES
Act of discretion of the CdC
Must be signed by the family
“Ogni alunno, con continuità o per determinati periodi, può manifestare Bisogni Educativi Speciali: o per motivi fisici, biologici, fisiologici o anche per motivi psicologici, sociali, rispetto ai quali è necessario che le scuole offrano adeguata e personalizzata risposta”.
Le tipologie di BES (ad esempio Area dello svantaggio socioeconomico, linguistico e culturale) dovranno essere individuate sulla base di elementi oggettivi (es. segnalazione degli operatori servizi sociali), ovvero di
ben fondate considerazioni psicopedagogiche e didattiche
Circolare Ministeriale n. 8, del 6 marzo 2013
A standard model
Think of what the school setting requires children to do:
Follow instructions. Concentrate.
These are the very things kids with ADHD have a hard time doing—not because they aren’t willing, but because their brains won’t let them. That doesn’t make teaching them any easier, of course.
Challenges for teachers
They demand attention by talking out of turn or moving around the room.
They have trouble following instructions.
They often forget to write down homework assignments, do them, or bring completed
work to school.
They often lack fine motor control, which makes note-taking difficult and handwriting a
trial to read.
They often have trouble with operations that require ordered steps.
They usually have problems with long-term projects where there is no direct supervision.
They don’t pull their weight during group work and may even keep a group from
accomplishing its task.
Students with ADHD pay the price for their problems in low grades, scolding and
punishment, teasing from peers, and low self-esteem.
Meanwhile, you, the teacher, wind up taking complaints from parents who feel their kids are being cheated of your instruction and feeling guilty because you can’t reach the child with ADHD.
In Administrative Acts (at school)
Form and Substance: same rank
Source: Falanga (2015)
How do you teach a student who won’t settle down and listen?
With a lot of
patience, creativity, and consistency
How you head off behaviors that disrupt concentration or distract other students
The methods you use in teaching
What you can do to make learning easier for students with ADHD
Your most effective tool is a positive attitude
You can make changes in the classroom to help minimize the distractions and disruptions of ADHD
Seat the student away from windows and away from the door.
Put the student right in front of your desk.
Seats in rows, with focus on the teacher, usually work better than having students seated around tables or facing one another in other arrangements.
Give instructions one at a time and repeat as necessary.
If possible, work on the most difficult material early in the day.
Use visuals: charts, pictures, colour coding.
Create outlines for note-taking that organize the information as you deliver it.
Create a quiet area free of distractions for test-taking and quiet study.
Create worksheets and tests with fewer items.
Test the student in the way he or she does best, such as orally or filling in blanks.
Divide long-term projects into segments and assign a completion goal for each segment.
Let the student do as much work as possible on computer.
Accept late work and give partial credit for partial work.
Have the student keep a ring binder with a separate section for each subject.
Colour-code materials for each subject.
Allow time for student to organize materials and assignments for home.
Make sure the student has a system for writing down assignments and important dates and uses it.
Teaching techniques that help students with ADHD focus and maintain their concentration on your lesson and their work can be beneficial to the entire class.
Starting a lesson
Signal the start of a lesson with an aural cue.
List the activities of the lesson on the board.
Tell students what they’re going to learn, what your expectations are,
what materials they’ll need.
Establish eye contact with any student who has ADHD.
Keep instructions simple and structured.
Vary the pace and include different kinds of activities.
Many students with ADHD do well with competitive games or other activities that are rapid and intense.
Use props, charts, and other visual aids.
Have an unobtrusive cue set up with the student who has ADHD, such as a touch on the shoulder or placing a sticky note on the student’s desk, to remind the student to stay on task.
Allow a student with ADHD frequent breaks.
Let the student squeeze a rubber ball or tap something that doesn’t make noise as a physical outlet.
Try not to ask the student to perform a task or answer a question publicly that might be too difficult.
Ending the lesson, summarize key points.
D. has a great deal of difficulty with her work. She appears to have trouble remembering. Well, not always. Sometimes she remembers how to read a word, other days she looks at the same word and it's like she has to scan all of the information in her head to try to locate the name of the word. I know she is trying, but it is very frustrating because her progress is so slow. She is also very easily distracted. She looks up and stop working at the littlest things.
I know she is bright enough but she has serious problems learning.
She gives me more work than the rest of my class put together. She has both academic problems and behavior problems. For example, after I have explained an assignment to the class, she always asks me several questions about the assignment. It's like I have to do everything twice, once for the class and then again for her. She has a terrible time with reading. She reads so slowly and she often reads the wrong word. For example, she will say carrot for circus and monster for mister. She often doesn't know what she's read after she's finished reading it. Also, she can never sit still. She is always moving around the room, sharpening her pencil, getting a book, looking out the window. It is hard for her to do the same thing for more than a few minutes. She's always “bugging” the other students. She's not really a bad kid, it's just that she is always doing something she's not supposed to be doing, and she takes a lot of my time.
Does this case look familiar to you?
What would you do to make the didactic strategies assets for all the class?
Which are the distinctive features of a student with learning disability you should keep in mind when planning the classroom activities?
Case study (2)
M. attends the second year of a middle school and has been diagnosed with DSA. He finds difficult to understand maths, and he can't read properly.
This year he's got a new maths teacher and a new English teacher. During the maths lessons he started to behave "madly", as the teacher said, he even lifted up a chair threatening to kill somebody.
Almost all the teachers spotted a disruptive behaviour.
He behaves properly only during my classes .
Once, when I entered the class after the maths lesson, he was very nervous, he was walking back and forth, shouting that he was going to kill somebody.
All the class expected I would react like the other teachers did, getting angry, yelling, ordering to sit down and shut up.
What did I do? I proposed him an “Arm wrestling”: “If I win you won't hurt anybody, if you win, we'll talk about it!”. He smiled and accepted.
I won. He seated down and we had our lesson without disruptions.
How can you stop his inappropriate attitudes and motivate him?
How can you correctly interpret his attitudes and get into a real relationship?
What do you have to convey to him?
How can you attract him so that he chooses to take part in the class activities?
There are several fonts that have been designed for the dyslexic reader: Dyslexie, Opendyslexic, Gill Dyslexic, Read Regular, Lexia Readable, Sylexiad.
In 2013, a study, led by Luz Rello and Ricardo Baezo-Yates, found that Helvetica, Courier, Arial and Verdana were the best fonts for dyslexics.
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES
Visual, Spatial (dyspraxia), Social
Mild: IQ range of 50 to 69 (in adults, mental age from 9 to under 12 years)
Moderate: IQ range of 35 to 49 (in adults, mental age from 6 to under 9 years)
Severe: IQ range of 20 to 34 (in adults, mental age from 3 to under 6 years)
Profound: IQ under 20 (in adults, mental age below 3 years)
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10): Mental retardation
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5): Intellectual Disability
Mild: IQ 55-70
Moderate: IQ 40-55
Severe: IQ 25-40
Profound: IQ < 25
Realia: photos taken during my classes
Guess the character...
Guess the character...
An Irish waitress...
At the restaurant...
Reviewing the present perfect...
Reviewing the present perfect...
Tests for students with DSA
Thank you for
Lightly coloured paper, 12-14 point
font, and bolding of text for highlighting are commonly believed to be best for dyslexics.
Glossy and bright white backgrounds,
italics, ALL CAPS, and underlining
have been found to impair reading for dyslexics.
What strategy would you adopt to interact and try to engage a student who seems to continually challenge the teacher's authority in the classroom and does not respect the rules?
The teacher distributes handouts with a different part of the story to each group. He then moves from group to group spending two or three minutes with each one.
The students appear to be busy working in their groups; there is much talking. After ten minutes, the teacher tells the students to stop and for three students to leave their group and to join another group. After ten more minutes they do this again. Then the students return to their original groups and work on putting the parts of the story together and teaching each other the new vocabulary. It is then time for the individual vocabulary test. After the test, the students correct their own work.
Groups move back together to compare and combine scores. The students put their group’s scores on each of their papers.
The teacher picks up each group’s paper and quickly figures the room score. There is much cheering and applauding when he announces that there will be five minutes of extra recess for everyone. He then tells the groups to look at how they did on the social skill of encouraging others and to complete two statements, which he has written on the board while they were taking the vocabulary test:
Our group did best on encouraging others by ________, and ________ (three specific behaviors).
Goal setting: The social skill we will practice more often tomorrow is _____________
He suggests that one of the students be the taskmaster to keep the group focused on the task of completing the statements, one be the recorder to write the group’s answers, one be the timekeeper to keep track of the time, one be the checker to see that all of the work is done, and one be the reporter who will give the group report later. He tells them that they have ten minutes for the discussion.
The teacher circulates among the groups, but does not say anything. After ten minutes, he asks each group’s reporter to share their group’s responses. The teacher consults the notes that he has made during his observation and he offers his comments.
The teacher asks for attention and announces that the day’s vocabulary lesson will be done in cooperative groups. Several students ask, ‘Which groups, teacher?’
‘We’ll stay in the same groups of six that you have been in so far this week,’ he replies. ‘I will give each group a different part of a story. There are four parts. Your group’s job is to read the part of a story that I will give you and to discuss the meaning of any new vocabulary words. Use your dictionaries or ask me when you can’t figure out the meaning of a word. In ten minutes, you will form new groups. Three of you will move to another group and three of you will stay where you are and others will join you. In each new group you will tell your part of the story. You will teach your new group the meanings of any vocabulary words that the group members don’t know. Listen to their part of the story. Learn the meaning of the new vocabulary in it. Then we will change groups again and you will do the same thing. The third time you will return to your original group and tell the story from beginning to end.
You will work together to learn the new vocabulary. After ten minutes of practice time, you will be asked to match each new vocabulary word with its definition on a worksheet that I will give you. Your group will help you during the practice time. During the test you’re each on your own. Your score will depend on your results as a group, since your five scores will be added together.
The teacher then writes the criteria on the board as he explains them:
90-100 percent = No one in your group has to take the test again.
89 percent or less = Everyone in your group takes the test again.
‘Everyone in the class will get an extra five minutes of recess tomorrow if the room score is 90 percent or better.’ There is a buzz of excitement about that possibility.
One student asks, ‘What social skills, teacher?’ In response, the teacher says, ‘Today you are all to practice encouraging others while your group works on learning the vocabulary words.’ He then asks, ‘What can encouraging others sound like?’
One student responds, ‘Nice job!’ Another says, ‘Way to go!’ ‘Clapping and cheering,’ offers a third.
‘Yes,’ says the teacher. ‘Now what can encouraging others look like?’
‘A pat on the back.’
‘All right. You’ve got the idea. Today I will observe each group. I will be looking for you to practice this social skill. Now, get into your groups.’
The teacher points out in which part of the room the groups are to sit.
One group of students sits in a circle on the floor, two put chairs around two desks, and one group sits at a table in the back of the room.