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New Imperialism: Africa and Asia
Transcript of New Imperialism: Africa and Asia
Before you can understand Imperialism, you must first understand a couple of definitions:
Imperialism--Strong nations dominating other countries for economic and political gain
Capitalism--Economic system with private businesses, freedom to compete. Competition is the driving force!
Nationalism--Loyalty to your own nation
Motives for Imperialism
Mine development- Diamonds, gold, etc.
Agriculture - luxury foods and clothing
Roads, Railroads and Infastructure
Employ native cultures, ie. cheap labor!
African Scramble 1870-1900
European countries were motivated by intense economic and political competition and rationalized their expansion on religious and cultural grounds and found their outlet in Africa
Social Darwininsm: Let's read the excerpt on page 341 in our text!
Justifications for Imperialism
Advanced European nations had a duty to share their higher culture with "backward cultures"
Religious groups sent missionary groups to christianize the savages
Colonies might attract surplus populations
Profits would support social programs and the new "welfare states" that emerged.
Africa became an important supplier of raw materials, such as ivory, rubber, minerals, and most notably diamonds and gold
African Diamond Mine
South Arican Gold Mine
By 1869 Egypt was dependant on European credit
1869 - Suez Canal - connected the Mediterranean to the Red Sea, and Europe to Asia.
Egyptian government fought for control of the canal, but British invaded and controlled it for 70 years
This limited the Egyptian economy and the Egyptians were forced to use any profits to pay back debt
King Leopold II of Belgium
posed as an anti-slavery humanitarian
administration used slave labor, mutilation, torture, and mass murder to extract ivory and rubber
it is estimated that his policies wiped out nearly 50% of the population in the Congo
Emergence of United States Imperialism
The Monroe Doctrine 1832
Spanish American War and Cuban Independence
drives Spain out of the western hemisphere
forced Spain to sell the Phillipines and Guam to U.S
U.S. dominated Hawaii and annexed it in 1898, overthrowing the monarchy there
By 1899 the U.S is an imperial and Pacific power
First established by the British East India Company
Because of Industrialism Britain became interested in India for its markets and resources
In 1857 a Sepoy (Indian Sailors) rebellion emerged and the British government sent troops to stop it
In 1858 Britain took direct control of India until 1947
India's 300 million people and raw materials provided potential for British manufacturing and imports.
Because of this Britain considered India the "jewel in the crown" of the British empire, it's most valuable colony.
European Powers Invade the Pacific Rim
Take a minute and define these words in your notes using the chart on page 346
3. Sphere of Influence
Which form of managing imperial interests would be most effective and why?
What were the causes of European Imperialism in Africa?
The lands of Southeast Asia were perfect for plantation agriculture and served as trading ports.
First colonized by the Dutch in 1600's
The British established ports for the growing trade between India and China.
The French colonized Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia)
There was intense migration to region disturbing the religious and cultural balance leading to intense conflicts between Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists.
China and the West
The Chinese resisted western expansion because they were proud of their ancient culture and very self-sufficient
The Chinese had a favorable balance of trade and the European's wanted to upset the balance
In the late 1700's British merchants began smuggling opium into China in order to improve the balance between Britain and China.
by 1825 12 million Chinese were addicted
Opium War 1839- after many pleas to stop trading opium the Chinese and British went to war. Chinese lost and the Treaty of Nanjing gave the British Hong Kong, many countries also gained extraterritorial rights (foreigners were not subject to Chinese law) and trade with China increased.
Growing Internal Problems
By 1850 China's population had grown to 430 million
Food Production did not match the growing population
The Taiping rebellion resulted in a new government for China, but with the help of British and French troops helped imperial forces bring down the Taiping government. The result was 20-40 million Chinese died.
1899 U.S> implemented the Open Door Policy. China was able to maintain its independence but was forced to trade.
Poor peasants and workers resented the privileges granted to foreigners and resented their government for it's part. They formed the "Society of Righteous and Harmonious fists" (Boxers) and rebelled against the Dowager Empress in the Spring of 1900.
The foreign forces put down the rebellion but it forced the Chinese government to adopt changes which were slow and meaningless. China continued to experience unrest for 40 years.
Modernization in Japan
Ending its Isolation
1854- Treaty of Kanagawa- Japan opened two ports for trade with the U.S.
1860- Japan had open trade with Europeans and extended extraterritorial rights to foreigners.
1867- The Shogun steps down and emperor Mutsushito establishes the Meiji Era
Japan began to modernize and adopt what they thought was the best of Western Culture and blended it with their own.
1890- Japan has several dozen warships and becomes imperialistic.
Sino-Japanese war- In 1876 Japan forces Korea to open its doors to trade, but China intervenes. China and Japan go to war and Japan crushed the Chinese navy and gained Taiwan and Pescadores Islands as its first colonies.
Russo-Japanese war- Japan and Russia emerged as the leading powers in East Asia. 1903 Japan offered to recognize Russia's claims in Chinese Manchuria if Russia stayed out of Korea and Russia refused. Japan crushed the Russian navy and eventually annexed Korea.
Both conflicts centered on Japan's control of Korea
What were the positive and negative results of colonization in Southeast Asia?