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Theories of Personality

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Netali Chopra

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of Theories of Personality

Theories of Personality
Chapter 13

Humanistic
People are basically good
People are like acorns,needing water, sunshine and nutrients to grow
Genuineness
Dropping the facade
Being open with your feelings
Acceptance
Accepting others and self completely (unconditionally)
Empathy to grow

Personality Development
Psychoanalytical
Humanistic
Biological
Traits
Behavioral
Personality Testing



What is Personality?
An individual’s pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Enduring and consistent behaviors
Developed the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psycho-sexual stages, and defense mechanisms.
Psychoanalytic
Freud
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.

Projection
Displacement
Reaction formation
Regression
Rationalization
Identification
Denial
Intellectualization
Dissociation
Conversion
Sublimation
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
PSYCHO-SEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
ID, EGO, SUPER EGO
Abraham Maslow
Founded by Freud
Focus was on unconscious drives and motives that shape personality
J. R. R. Tolkien’s character Sam Gamgee, loyal companion to Frodo Baggins, illustrates the distinctiveness and consistency that define personality. Sam never fails Frodo. He is a cheerful, conscientious, optimistic, and, most notably, loyal. This clip notes the moment in which Frodo leaves by boat for the dreaded land of Mordor. Sam, following at some distance, pursues Frodo, even though he can’t swim. Sam’s near-drowning ends with the friends clasping hands and Sam’s statement of allegiance never to leave: “I made a promise, Mr. Frodo . . . .”
Oral Stage (0-1)
Anal Stage (2-3)
Phallic Stage (4-5)
Oedipal & Electra Complex
Identification
Latency Stage(6-12)
Genital Stage (Puberty)
Personality development occurs over a life span
An individual's ability to over come challenges within each of the 8 stages of development impacts one's understanding of self ( a secure personality or a secure self)
Erik Erickson: A
Neo-Freudian
Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology
The source of human motivation is striving for superiority.
Children start their lives smaller, weaker, and less socially and intellectually competent than the adults around them.
As a result we compensate for those feelings of inferiority from childhood onward
Our personality strives toward an ideal goal of significance, mastery or success
Inferiority Complex
Negative responses
Shy and timid, insecure, indecisive, cowardly, submissive, compliant,
Superiority Complex
Negative responses
Over compensate
Aggressive, dominant, selfish/self absorbed

Summary
Carl Jung:Analytical
Psychology
Conscious component includes the ego
Unconscious components of personality
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
Supports this idea with Ancestral memories
Archetypes (4 primary)
Come from the collective unconscious
The Self
Anima
Animus
Shadow
Tend to show preference for certain personality types
Introversion
Extroversion
And the interplay between these attitudes and the 4 functions yield the 8 personality types
Carl Rogers
People are largely conscious and rational beings who are not dominated by unconscious needs.
Durable disposition
Consistency in behavior across situations
Basic traits that form the core of a personality
Biological: Trait Perspectives
Five Factor Model: "The Big Five"
Hans & Sybil Eysenck's
PEN MODEL
There are 5 dimensions of personality (global factors that describe personality)
Behavioral

Social -Cognitive Theories
Albert Bandura & Jullian Rotter
Social Learning Theory
Observational Learning
Self-Efficacy & Reciprocal Determinism
Jullian Rotter
Cognitive Expectancies
Reinforcement Values
Locus of Control
Internal or External
Personality is shaped by the reinforcements and
punishments within ones environment
Personality Testing
MMPI Test Profile

Rorschach Inkblot Test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Myers Brigg
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.

Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)


Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.

The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

Rorschach Inkblot Test


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsTa-4Tamdg#aid=P-dfbLyqslw
Full transcript