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Transcript of Reconstruction
~Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).
~Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials.
~Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.
ku klux klan
to reunite the Union was the least severe on the South. The South only had to swear an allegiance to the U.S Constitution, accept federal laws ending slavery and finally could reenter the Union when 10% of the state swore the Union Plan. However, after Lincoln's assassination by John Wilkes Booth on April 14th, 1865, Lincoln was no longer there to hold back the Radical Republicans from punishing the South to their own extent.
was the next president after Lincoln, whose plan for the South was much more influenced by the many Radical Republicans in office. It declared that states need to nullify all laws made during their secession, pay back their war debt, and approve the 13th Amendment. It was nearly the same plan as Lincoln except Johnson expanded the groups of southerners not granted a general pardon.
The Congressional Plan a.k.a the Radical Republican's Plan
had a much more different approach contrary to the presidents' targets. As much as they wanted to reunite the country as quickly as possible, they had strong desires to punish the South for the war as well. They demanded 50% of each states' voters would agree to pass the 14th Amendment, guarantee all men the right to vote and guarantee black men the right to hold office. All new state constitutions would have to be approved by Congress and to ensure that these laws and programs were being followed, the South would also be divided into five military districts until the North believed they could cooperate without military forces.
During the Reconstruction era, Congress added three new amendments enforcing equal rights to the new and unsettling union of the South and North. All states were required to approve the
, the amendment that abolished slavery once and for all. However, even with abolished slavery, the states tried their best to deny the rights of freedmen with black codes (laws passed to keep freedmen from having the same rights as whites). As a result, the
was created to grant citizenship to freedmen and required “equal protection under the law" for everyone. Though the amendment was also approved by all the states, it still didn't stop angry southerners from treating these freedmen unequally. Poll taxes were one of the many attempted examples that people tried to use to still disfranchise the rights of the freedmen. The
was soon annexed into the Constitution which gave all men the right to vote- black or white. Yet, the discrimination towards these
freedmen continued as they were constantly
blamed for all the punishment received by
The Freedmen's Bureau
was one of the many organizations built after the Civil War
that focused on helping freed slaves and poor whites with basic needs of food,
clothing, shelter, and medication as well as other necessities such as education
and finding jobs.
Purposes and Goals-
The main purpose for this organization was to help both
former slaves and poor whites cope with their everyday problems by
offering daily necessities. However, after a while, education became a
main focus for the Freedmen's Bureau. The program had built over
4000 primary schools, 64 industrial schools, and 74 teacher training
facilities for young African Americans. The North and many
individuals as well as missionaries contributed by funding the
Bureau with teachers and money.
Other organizations such as the American Missionary Association
sponsored the creation of Georgia's Atlanta University in 1867. This college educates
many to this day as well as many other various colleges such as Morehouse College and
Thirteenth and fifteenth
During the Reconstruction Era, many freed blacks
and poor whites were forced to find work that would support the family and earn enough profit to save up money. Because the South's economy and entire market had been burnt to the ground, many jobless citizens found themselves as a sharecropper or a tenant farmer. Without slaves, landowners needed laborers to work their large farms. This gave many unemployed, hopeless people another chance at rebuilding up their fortune again. However, the reforms in the South did not focus on diversifying the economy and sharecropping overlooked the new South. This built a barrier for poor blacks and whites in achieving their goal to own their own land and lead the economy into an unhealthy environment for both sides.
Ku Klux Klan
were one of the many secret organizations that were against the idea of letting freedmen exercise their new rights.
They used force, terror and whatever else it took from letting African Americans from having the same rights as everyone else.
It first formed in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1865 as a club for returning soldiers but quickly changed its purpose as a blockade of equal rights.
They dressed in robes and hoods to hide their identities and acted violent towards the freedmen.
Any freedmen not frightened by these terrorists put their life at stake whenever they stepped outside the house. Many did not believe that putting their life at risk was worth their opinions in politics and so the majority lived in fear of having their say as freedmen. This violence and terror increased hostilities between the two races and also caused many incidents of racial conflict.
- the period immediately following
the Civil War when the South worked to recover from the Civil War
- southerners who supported the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction
- groups of northerners who moved
South after the Civil War to help with Reconstruction
- a tax paid to be able to vote
- a set of laws passed by Georgia and most
southern states after the Civil War restrict the rights of the freedmen
- to take the right to vote away from someone or some group
John Wilkes Booth
- assassin of Abraham Lincoln