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Maha Almalki

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Robotics

What is a
A robot does not need to be intelligent and talk like C3PO and R2D2. It can be a simple RC car, or a humanoid that can clean the dishes for you.It can be attached to your own body, or just a little dancing ballerina in your music box. An electric scooter, motorcycles, and cars are all robots. You may not be aware, but robots are all around you. Most you have seen are not quite as advanced as Rosie the Robot or Wall-E.
Industrial robots
Everything around you, your TV, a desk, your family car,
the majority of modern day products are built by industrial
robots. They are robots that continuously run the same program for years, doing a task. The program needs to be very precis to work, or else whatever your building will go horribly wrong.
Industrial robots typically resemble arms. they do what a person would do if they were doing the work. They are used to
quickly assemble things with small parts, heavy parts, or just to make things get built quicker.

Industrial robots have a highly sophisticated brain sensory system. They sense the objects around them so they don't
make any mistakes. As I said, if this program is not very precis,
the sensory system will sense the wrong objects, and build something else or distroy what it was programed to do.
The definition of a robot is a machine with automatic moving parts. Robots are basically a machine version of animal life. They move, like animals. Modern robots have a brain (not a real one) like animals, and some make noise and do tasks, like people. To be classified as a robot, it must have a motor, or any other thing that can automatically move without human contact.
Cyborgs are people with robotic body parts. You may have seen cyborgs in movies. Real cyborgs are similar, but not quite the same. Fictional cyborgs are usually people who are half human, half robot. Real cyborgs have only one or two electronic parts. This is because only people with missing or paralyzed parts are cyborgs. They are also very expensive to make. These robotic limbs work by sensing brain waves passing through the nerves. The robot converts these brain waves in to code that the robot responds to and moves.
Industrial robots are usually arms or cars. Sometimes you need different shapes and features to get things to work correctly. Some of the things animals in the wild are related to what the robots need to do, like stick to surfaces and swim underwater. These are both things animals can do.
Little builders
These robots are inspired by termites. Termites can easily build massive domes with little senses and no communication with each other, so why not try it ourselves! Researchers from Harvard University built tiny termite robots that have very little lines of code. They independently build 10 foot tall structures in only a few days!
Astronaut geckos
This prototype tells us more about
the future of space exploration. It
is a gecko inspired robot capable of
withstanding the powerful vacuum
of space. It can stick to anything. A breed of these geckos could clean, build, and maintain machines in space.
Air jellies
This prototype is meant to easily fly in the air. Created at New York University, this robot gracefully flies how a jellyfish swims. No helium, just a very light ball. It has no tentacles, but this prototype may become a fully functional flying machine that people ride in.
There are many programing languages used to program
modern day robots. Here is an example:

Move to P1 (a general safe position)
Move to P2 (an approach to P3)
Move to P3 (a position to pick the object)
Close gripper
Move to P4 (an approach to P5)
Move to P5 (a position to place the object)
Open gripper
Move to P1 and finish

This is a simple programing language only used for robots. P1 and P3 are examples of motor names. To make it easier, people usually make their own programming language. The data for the coding is all stored in microchips. To insert the data in the micro chips, you must use a computer connected to the microchip and type a data flow language. This determines how the data will enter the microchip. People also develop their own data flow language.
The Evolution of Robotics
Industries that Utilize Robotics
Medical Robotics And Computer-Assisted Surgery (MRCAS)
Industry Size
State of Maturation
Target Markets within MRCAS
Competitive Environment
Market Demand
External Economic Factors
Non-Market Forces
Maha Almalki
Abhijit Baruah
Kaan (Abdullah) Zaimoglu

"A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks“

Source: Robot Institute of America, 1979
Definition: Robotics
12th century
1998 – Campbell Aird is attached the first bionic arm
In 2002, iRobot released the first generation Roomba.
In 2004, NASA’s rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars
The Arab polymath Al-Jazari (1136-1206 AD)
The Evolution of Robotics
The first Predator drone was introduced in July 1995
Forces Driving Development and Innovation
Technological development and innovation are exponential, not linear (Moore’s Law)

Global robotics competitions
Various types; indoor-ground, outdoor-ground, underwater-vehicle, aerial-vehicle, personal-service

The quest for “perfect” Artificial Intelligence and mapping of human brain as a computer

Insurance companies seeking lower cost and lower risk alternatives to current standards
Industry Sectors
Robotics Market Size
In 2013, the robotics industry was estimated to be around $22 billion.

It is projected for the industry to grow at a CAGR of 5.9% between 2013 - 2018 to surpass $29 billion.

(Source: BCC Research)

External Economic Factors [Affecting the Industry]
Insurance companies would like lower cost and lower risk procedures, diagnostics, and treatments

Legal principles affecting the robotics industry, mostly due to the Roboethics (Robot Rights) movement
How ethical or legally sound is it to let robots carry out potentially fatal surgeries?
Who is to blame in a robot-surgery error?
How ethical would it be to replace hands-on healthcare employees’ jobs with robots?
Target Markets in Health Care Sector
Competitive Landscape
Intuitive Surgical
Non-Market Forces
Government regulations

American Medical Association (AMA)

American Surgical Association (ASA)

Society of Robotic Surgery

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE);
namely the Robotics and Automation Society division

America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP)
and other large healthcare insurance companies
Key Challenges Facing the Industry
Roboethics and the argued ethical issue of replacing fatally crucial jobs with robots

Deployment Issues

Certification issues for robots, especially surgery robots

Healthcare industry is unlikely to fully adopt robots unless the risk and cost are considerably small, compared to current alternatives
Robotics in Healthcare

Medical Robotics & Computer Assisted Surgery (MRCAS)

Education & Research
Government & Defense
Consumer Services
Design & Development
In 2003, the International Federation of Robotics (IFR)
value the global market for Intelligent Service Robots at $400 million
Medical Robotics & Computer Assisted Surgery (MRCAS)

Robotics in Healthcare
Intuitive Surgical
Market demand
TOMY introduced i-sobot (the entertainment robot;
world's smallest humanoid robot) in 2007
The term "robot" was first introduced by Karel Capek in a play called R.U.R. (Rossum's Universial Robots) in January 1921.

It comes from the word "robota" and means "slave" or "forced labor".
Global competitive landscape for Robotics
Source : A Helping Hand for Europe: The Competitive Outlook for the EU Robotics Industry - Authors: Simon Forge and Colin Blackman
Source : BCC Research
Thank You
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