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Transcript of BF Skinner
extrinsic, life skills
Applied Behavior Analysis
Positive Behavior Interventions and Support
RTI for behavior:
teach desired behavior
intervene before it happends Model of Discipline
Behavior Modification college years: Hamilton College to be a writer age 24: Psychology Department of Harvard University 1st book: The Behavior of Organism (1938) "dark year" inspired by Pavlov and Watson 1936: married Yvonne Blue, moved to Minneapolis, had two daughters 1945: moved to Bloomington, IN where he became the chair of the Psychology Department at Indiana University Life altering moment. After watching the class, he constructed his 1st teaching machine. 1957: Skinner published Verbal Behavior. 1989: diagnosed with leukemia. This model includes Skinner's ideas. He actually never proposed a model of school discipline. Other writers have taken his ideas and adapted them to controlling behavior in schools. The following ideas reveal the essences of Skinner's model. Warning! Skinner says, "there are two human behavior categories" 2. Graphic: marks of various kinds
ex: numerals, checks, happy faces made with pen 3. Activity: something a student prefers to do
ex: sit by the teacher, play a game, work with a friend 4. Tangible: real objects that students can earn as rewards for desired behavior.
ex: popcorn, raisins, chalk Controversy among Parents Parent: “I don’t want my child manipulated.”
Teacher: “Me neither. I always give the child choice. ‘You can do your work and get positive reinforcement or you cannot do your work and not receive positive reinforcement.’ Your child will always have a choice.”
Parent: “I don’t want my child bribed.”
Teacher: “That’s understandable. What do you recommend I do when I want to encourage a behavior we’re working toward? I’ll definitely tell praise student name but is there anything else you recommend?”
*most times these concerns will come from General Education parents, not so much Special Education parents. Constructivism:
Love and logic
Life Space Crisis Intervention
discuss behavior after
time consuming 1. Respondent Behavior: refers to involuntary responses such as those over which we have little or no control
ex: respondent behaviors include increased blood pressure and pulse rate in response to anxiety-provoking conditions
2. Operant behavior: it is voluntary. Operant responses are emitted and are controlled by the individual and are primarily maintained by environmental antecedents and consequences.
ex: engaging in social interactions and countless other responses over which we have control. Skinner's Ideas •Behavior shaped by consequences
•Systematic use of reinforcement
•Behavior weakens if not followed by reinforcement
•Behavior weaken by punishment
•Constant reinforcement produces the best result
•Once the desired level of learning is reached provide reinforcement occasionally
•Behavior modification varies in the kinds of reinforcements Types of Reinforcement •Positive reinforcement
•Token economy system
•Systematic desensitization Sources Hathcote, A. (2013, January 17). Interview by K Stein [Personal Interview].
Behavior modification controversy., Aberdeen, SD.
Vargas, Julie. (2013, January 17). A Brief Biography of B.F. Skinner. B.F.
Skinner Foundation. www.bfskinner.org/bfskinner/AboutSkinner.html
Teacher Matters. (n.d.). The skinner model of discipline. Retrieved from
Simpson, R., & Smith Myles, B. (1998). Educating children and youth with
autism. (1st ed., pp. 114-138). Austin,TX: PRO-ED The 4 W's
•Who the target is
•When the target behavior is to be measured
•What the behavior is
•Where the behavior is to be measured Positives vs. Negatives •It is simple to use.
•It accommodates most teachers' desire to maintain control.
•Students can feel successful when they obtain rewards.
•Standards of behavior are uniform, consistent, and clear to all students.
Used for all ages. •The results might not last long.
•Students may not perform as desired when rewards are terminated
•Students may not learn how to govern their own behavior
•The approach may seem too much like bribery to some teachers
"reward the good, ignore the bad". 1. Social: consists of words, gestures, and facial expression. ex: Wow! Excellent! Smile, Nods