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US History Main_from 1930s

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Adam Shockey

on 16 May 2018

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Transcript of US History Main_from 1930s

The 1960s
From Camelot through Johnson
Johnson and the
Great Society
Civil Rights Act 1964:
outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
ends unfair voter registration practices (poll taxes, literacy tests, etc.)
ends racial segregation in schools, the workplace, and places of public accommodation

24th Amendment:

both Congress and the states from having
poll taxes
Voting rights Act
Voting rights Act

a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that
outlawed discriminatory voting practices
JOHNSON LIES with Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

North Vietnam attack on USS
Maddox report falsified
Black Panther Party Founded
Black Power Movement

political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies.

Used by blacks--mostly from the US

The movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s,

racial pride, creation of black political and cultural institutions, and to nurture and promote black interests in society
Tet Offensive
The New Left = Colleges are natural
places to promote social change

60': SDS-established Michigan
62': term New left established
Major Achievements
-65': Medicare
-National Endowment for Arts/Humanities
-Cigarette Labeling Act
66': Medicaid (and War on Poverty)
-National Highway Safety Administration
-Fair packaging/labeling Act
67': Public Broadcasting Act (e.g. NPR, PBS)
68' Truth-in-Lending Act
-Civil Rights Act of 1964
-Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Feminine Mystique
Published (Betty Friedan)
"The Problem that has no name"
Founded in 1966 by 28 women and men
attending a conference on the status of Women in Washington DC

Today: has over 500,000 members, with 550 chapters in all 50 states
The 1970's: Nixon through Carter
Nixon Becomes President
1. Known for his accomplishments in foreign policy
-detente ("lessening of tensions") with the Soviet Union
2. Disgraced through Watergate
Title IX) in 1972 banning sex discrimination in higher education. Title IX became vital in subsequent efforts by women to counter patterns of gender bias in colleges and universities.

Patterson, James T. (1996-04-18). Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974. (Oxford History of the United States) (p. 719). Oxford University Press, USA. Kindle Edition.
Title IX
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Roe VS. Wade
Camp David Accords

(Agreed on 2 frameworks);
1. to work for peace between Israel and Egypt after 30 years of conflict
--returned Sinai after Israel had captured it in 1967 Arab-Israeli War
2. Framework for broader Israeli-Palestinian Peace
Nixon and New Federalism

First of modern trend to: "limit the
power of the Federal Government"
Ping-Pong Diplomacy and China
GLE: 4.4.1 Analyzes how an understanding of United States history can help us prevent problems today.
I will complete an assessment to try and draw a conclusion from my researched analogies as to how the knowledge of historical patterns can either promote or stop such patterns from continuing based on if they are positive or negative.
Different ways historians have defined the 70's:

1. The
end of Grand Expectations
beginning of a period as a "Restless Giant"
A time of Malaise
, deep economic recession, and "Stagflation"
(i.e. low growth-high inflation)
3. A time of
in culture and dress
a time to rebuild trust in government
with seemingly boring, unimpressive
presidents--Ford and Carter (setting us up for Reagan's charisma in the 70's)
Getting us ready for: "The Gipper"
1968: The year from Hell
1. Tet Offensive
2. MLK assassinated
3. Bobby Kennedy Assassinated
bright spots:

1. Moon Landing

2. Detente: S.A.L.T.
Treaty with Soviet

3. Sino-Soviet split
and first moves to
warm up relations
with China
What it definitely was:

1. a time when 60's idealism became positive policy
a. National Environmental Policy Act (e.g. end of leaded gas)
b. Women's Rights Progress
c. Foreign Policy progress--the US realizing its limits
i. Detente
ii. Camp David Accords
Israeli-Egyptian Sinai Accord
Yom Kippur war and
1973 Oil Crisis
The 1973 oil crisis started in October 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC (consisting of the Arab members of OPEC, plus Egypt, Syria and Tunisia) proclaimed an oil embargo. This was "in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military" during the Yom Kippur war.[citation needed] It lasted until March 1974.[1]
Iran Hostage Crisis
and 2nd Oil Crisis (1979-1980)
-Pentagon Papers
-Leaks and Plumbers
-Growing Suspicion and
Hostility of Nixon
-Plumbers reorg.
and break into
The Day After
In his diary, Reagan wrote:

Columbus Day. In the morning at Camp D. I ran the tape of the movie ABC is running on the air November 20. It’s called “The Day After.” It has Lawrence, Kansas wiped out in a nuclear war with Russia. It is powerfully done, all $7 mil. worth. It’s very effective & left me greatly depressed. So far they haven’t sold any of the 25 spot ads scheduled & I can see why…My own reaction was one of our having to do all we can to have a deterrent & to see there is never a nuclear war.33

Edmund Morris, Reagan’s official biographer, said the film left Reagan “dazed” and produced the only admission he could find in Reagan’s papers that he was “greatly depressed.” Four days later, he said, Reagan was “still fighting off the depression caused by The Day After.”34

Hoffman, David (2009-09-22). The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and its Dangerous Legacy (pp. 90-91). Anchor.
Unit Learning Target:
I will be able to describe how an understanding of US history can help us prevent a problem--or promote good patterns--today.
From "Malaise" to "Morning in America"
1980's Section Unit Target:

1. I will be able to describe how recessions effect the President and Party in power

2. I will be able to describe how the negative pattern of Versailles began to be repeated in Afghanistan
1980's: The age of Reagan and the End of the Cold War
and Downing of KAL flight 007

2nd hottest Cold War flash point after
the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cold War worsens before it gets better (79-83)
The Cold War: Contras, Strategic Defense Initiative, Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF)
1. Russian's Invade Afghanistan (Dec. 1979)

2. Reagan and the
Soviet Union as the "Evil Empire"

3. Pershing Missiles in Europe
1. Reagan's Economic Policies,
Deregulation, and
"Supply side Economics"

Nixon to Reagan's
"New Federalism" (i.e.
smaller government)
The Economy, Economic Cycles, and
Reagan's Re-election:
Annualized GDP change from 1923 to 2009. Data are annual from 1923 to 1946 and quarterly from 1947 to the second quarter of 2009
Bush 1
Reagan 8 Years
Clinton 8 Years
Bush 8 Years
Star Wars (SDI)
supply-side economics

Theory that focuses on influencing the supply of labour and goods, using tax cuts and benefit cuts as incentives to work and produce goods. It was expounded by the U.S. economist Arthur Laffer (b. 1940) and implemented by Pres. Ronald Reagan in the 1980s. Supporters point to the economic growth of the 1980s as proof of its efficacy; detractors point to the massive federal deficits and speculation that accompanied that growth.
Primary and Secondary Sources
Primary sources are original documents such as:
(e.g. Lewis
and Clark)
(e.g. John
to Abigail
(e.g. "Thirteen Days:
A Memoir of the Cuban
Missile Crisis)
(e.g. I have a dream;
Gettysburg Address)
(e.g. Frost
(e.g. the Autobiog.
of Theodore Roosevelt)
(i.e. something handwritten
or typed with no other copies;
e.g. The Dead Sea Scrolls)
Secondary Sources:

"A secondary source is a second-hand account or observation at least one step removed from the event described."

Main purpose: to make information more accessible to the public by gathering and clarifying information from primary sources
Afghan War Ends

The Cold War Thaws
Gorbachev and Reagan
June 12, 1987
Iran Contra Scandal
--Reagan against Cuban supported Communists called the
-Created Contras to stand against them
-Congress outlawed official aid, so was done covertly
Tiananmen Square
INF Treaty (Intermediate-range reduction of Nuclear Forces Treaty signed)
Bush 1, Recession, Downsizing, and Racial Tension 89-93
1st Gulf War
Back to the Future
War where the first war
started: ethnic cleansing in the Balkans;
the Dayton Accords
Health Care Reform Failure,
Contract with America,
and the end of "Big Government"
Summer 1990
Recession Begins:

1. Fall in Consumer spending

2. Drop in number of New Homes

3. Unemployment goes up due to ripple
effect/loss of jobs due to the above

4. DOWNSIZING a new phenomenon =

Companies cut workers to prove to
stockholders that they are "lean" and "fit"
When did the Cold War Truly End?

1989? (fall of Berlin Wall)

1991? Breakup of Soviet Union?

15 republics breakup
1922 to 1991
Why/How Breakup?

1. No money for military
support to "Satellite" countries

2. Countries (such as East Germany)
knew they could challenge power,
overthrow their communist governments

3. Countries within the USSR used
Soviet Constitution to start referendums
to become indpendent

4. State no longer had the power to stop them
Ethnic Cleansing:

1. Czechoslovakia splits into 2
2. Break up of Yugoslavia takes place
3. ethnic tensions going back a thousand years
between Muslims and Christians comes to the surface

4. Key 20th century thread: HATRED AND NATIONALISM
IN BEGAN (WWI) AND ENDED (Bosnian War) in the
Dayton Peace Accords
August 1998
US Embassy Bombings
by Al Qaeda
US Response
1995-2000 (the Economy Really Takes off!
Largest Peacetime expansion in US History
Entry Task:

1. What is a primary Source?

2. What is a secondary source?
Ch. 24: Chapter 24 The Home Front 1914–1919
How did Americans on the home front support or oppose World War I?

During World War I, the federal government worked to mobilize the country for war. At the same time, tensions arose as the need for national unity was weighed against the rights of Americans to express their opposition to the war.

Woman’s Peace Party
For religious or political reasons, some Americans opposed the war. Among the leading peace activists were members of the Woman’s Peace Party.

Committee on Public Information
During the war, the government created this propaganda agency to build support for the war. Although CPI propaganda helped Americans rally around the war effort, it also contributed to increased distrust of foreign-born citizens and immigrants.

Liberty Bonds
The purchase of Liberty Bonds by the American public provided needed funding for the war and gave Americans a way to participate in the war effort.

Great Migration
During the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans migrated out of the South. They were attracted to northern cities by job opportunities and hopes for a better life.

Espionage and Sedition acts
The Espionage and Sedition acts allowed the federal government to suppress antiwar sentiment. The laws made it illegal to express opposition to the war.

Socialists and Wobblies
Socialists and Wobblies who opposed the war became the targets of both patriot groups and the government for their antiwar positions. Many were jailed under the Espionage and Sedition acts.

Schenck v. United States
The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act in this 1918 case. It ruled that the government could restrict freedom of speech in times of “clear and present danger.”

Page 314
Chapter 23 The Course and Conduct of World War I 1915–1918
How was World War I different from previous wars?

World War I was the world’s first truly modern war. New inventions and technological advances affected how the war was fought and how it ended. The United States provided soldiers, equipment, and finances, which contributed to the Allied victory.

Selective Service Act
Before the United States could join the Allies, tens of thousands of troops had to be recruited and trained. As part of this process, Congress passed the Selective Service Act to create a national draft.

369th Regiment
Hundreds of thousands of African Americans served in segregated military units during World War I. The all-black 369th Regiment received France’s highest military honors for its service in Europe.

American Expeditionary Force
President Woodrow Wilson and General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force, insisted that most American troops fight as a force separate from the Allied army. Two million Americans fought in the AEF during the war.

The land war
New weapons made land warfare much deadlier than ever before. The result was trench warfare, a new kind of defensive war.

The air war
Both sides first used airplanes and airships for observation. Technological improvements allowed them to make specialized planes for bombing and fighting.

The sea war
Early in the war, ocean combat took place between battleships. The Germans then used U-boats to sink large numbers of ships. To protect merchant ships, the Allies developed a convoy system. Later, the Allies laid a mine barrier across the North Sea and English Channel.

Meuse-Argonne Offensive
In 1918, close to 1 million U.S. soldiers took part in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Their success helped bring about an armistice with Germany.
i. This display/thread reveals the repeating trend in US history of either “engaging” with an international problem, or “isolating” ourselves from involvement in managing it. When the US has isolated itself from international problems in the 20th century, it has tended to cost us more in the long run in both lives and money. The best example of these costs are with what happened to Germany after the unfair treaty of Versailles was signed to end WWI. Because the treaty forced Germany to pay so much (in reparations), its economy was severely depressed which led directly to the rise of Hitler and thus WWII.

ii. If there is another war in the future that serves our short-term interests to get involved in, we need to more seriously consider whether it is wise to leave the area before it has become totally secure economically and politically.
Historical Pattern/Thread 1: US Isolationism or Engagement
The Guns of August
and Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Entry task 10-31-12:

1. When there is another war in the future that the US gets involved in, should we just leave the country alone once we have achieved "victory"? (or achieved our primary/first objective?)

Why or why not?

2. Is there such a thing as "winning the war" but "losing the peace."? Explain with at least one sentence.
EXIT TASK: Write this analogy set down

Treaty of Versailles:WWII
1980's US Afghanistan Exit : 9/11

1. Did Hitler have a job after WWI? Did he have hope?

2. Did the 9/11 Terrorists have jobs or hope in their home/Arab countries before the were recruited by Osama Bin Laden to attack us?
11-5-12 Entry Task: Write the quote (
in red
) down, then answer the question:

1. Why do you think President Wilson said this in 1917?
"I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it."
— Quote by President Woodrow Wilson, during his tour to drum up support for the League of Nations, September 1917.
Entry Task 11-9-12 Friday (
write down and answer the quote and question in red)

By 1920, Americans were not as interested in joining the League of Nations as Wilson and the democrats were
Secretary of State, Robert Lansing, said:
"[Most Americans seem to think that we] ...should attend to our own affairs and let the rest of the nations go to the devil if they want to."

1. What do you think this meant?

I think this meant...

1. What led to the rise Hitler and fascism in the 1920's and 30's?
a. Unequal Treaty of Versailles--blaming
whole of WWI on Germany--wounds
national pride in Germany
b. Depression in US contributes
directly to depression in Germany
c. Depression in Germany leads directly
to rise of Fascism and Hitler
Failure of treaty of Versailles
Global Interdependence as a cause of WWII

*After congress failed to sign Treaty of Versailles
and entering the League of Nations, the US began a period of Isolationism

*Especially after the stock market crash in 1929, this isolationism (neglect of Europe) directly led to the rise of Hitler and WWII

* The rise of Hitler, Mussolini, and fascism is related to US neglect of foreign affairs and the belief that it could ignore problems in Europe and Asia without eventually being affected
1. Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
2. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
3. Right wing
4. Left wing
5. demagogues
6. Social Security Act
Gulf of Tonkin Incident:Vietnam
Treaty of Versailles = treats Germany harshly
Entry Task 1st Period 12-7-12
(only write down and answer the questions/assignments in red.)

As we look to start the final weeks of this semester--studying the period between WWII and when you were born--I want you to keep 2 things in mind:

1. You, after 1995, are now part of a continuation of that American History that we will be analyzing

2. What do I see in MY WORLD today that is/will be a continuation of that same history?

Vocab words that will be tested on Tuesday:

All vocab words from "Chapter 36: Fighting World War II (p. 465-477)" will be tested and vocab words with definitions turned in.
June 1942 to January 1943:

When Germany and Japan lost the war.

Battle of the Coral Sea and Battle of Midway
(Reference page 117)
June 1942
2 Battles turned the tide of the War in the Pacific to favor the United States over Japan

II. Battle of Stalingrad (Reference Map on page 468)
* Aug. 1942 thru Jan. 1943
*200,000 Germans died
*over 1 million Soviet Soldiers Died
*But this was the turning point, when
*Hitler didn't study his history; Napoleon made the same mistake of marching on Russia during the winter
Harry S. Truman
Dwight D. Eisenhower "Ike"
John F. Kennedy
1961-November 22nd, 1963
1945-1963: Period of National Consolidation
"We Didn't Start the Fire"
by Billy Joel

Song about the period from Truman (1945) to right before you were born (1993)

Harry Truman and the "Fair Deal"
Fair Deal:

Truman's domestic program
, which he began promoting in 1945 with such intentions as
increasing the minimum wage
, increasing
aid to agriculture
, and enacting a
national health insurance program
only some of which congress approved
the Cold War: 1947-1989/1991
The Truman Doctrine:
a U.S. foreign policy, established in 1947 by President Harry S. Truman, of providing economic and military aid to countries--initially Greece and Turkey--that were attempting to resist communism

The Marshall Plan:a U.S. plan, initiated by Secretary of State George Marshall and implemented from 1948-1951, to aid in the economic recovery of Europe after World War II by offering certain European countries substantial funds.
the 50's in the popular imagination:
Korean War and the
Election of 1952
Red Scares:
Senator Joseph McCarthy
and the House Committee on
Un-American Activities (HUAC)

----> Started in 1938
1947, Hollywood Ten
blacklist: anyone accused or even suspected of being a Communist or Communist sympathizer was barred from working in Hollywood
Truman drops out of election,
Eisenhower elected
Nixon and

Interstate Highway Act (1956)


Prosperity and Peace at Home leads to acceptance in expanded government assistance.
Women and minorities in the workforce and improved civil rights resulted from:
effects of WWII--women working, blacks serving in military
Korean war military integration of blacks and whites
daughters who saw their mothers enter the work force; they then wanted to join the workforce to
By 1960, 40% of American women
had joined the workforce
Not all Americans

d in the
"The Other Side America" (1962)
The book
35 million
below the
5. Braceros DATE: 1942

a. An agreement between the United States and Mexico brought thousands of Mexican agricultural workers, or braceros, to the United States

b. Braceros were prevalent in the South and the West

c. Braceros became part of the American agricultural economy after World War
bracero-type patterns in US History:

During times of prosperity, acceptance of the presence of migrant workers
During economic downturns, less acceptance and can be more government operations to arrest and deport migrant workers and illegal immigrants
Operation Wetback: 1954 when 80,000 Mexicans were deported during an economic recession
Historical Pattern:

Marquette Frye harrassment : LA riot 1965


Rodney King beating: LA Riot 1991


Freddie Gray death:Baltimore Riots 2015
1991 LA Riot
1968-1980: Reaction and the New Right--Nixon, Ford, and Carter

Gerald Ford
1974 - 1977
Jimmy Carter
1977 - 1981
Lyndon B. Johnson
November 22nd 1963 to 1969
Richard M. Nixon
1969 - 1974
Ronald Reagan
1981 - 1989
George H.W. Bush
1989 - 1993
William J. Clinton
1993 - 2001
George W. Bush
2001 - 2009
Barack H. Obama
2009 - Present
2002 March
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
US History Chapter 14
Labor's Response to Industrialism
Connection to the Past:
Seattle May Day Riot 2012
1999 WTO Protests Seattle
2002 March
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
2002 March
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
Poor Working Class conditions/Child Labor leads to
Labor Unions / Strikes
Railroad Strike of 1877
P. 180, 2nd paragraph from bottom -- >
Depression/economic crisis : pressure against labor unions
Leads to: increased competition for jobs
Leads to: unpopularity of labor unions and efforts to organize
2011 Wisconsin Protests
American Federation of Labor:

a national labor organization, founded in 1886, that consisted mainly of skilled workers and focused on higher wages and shorter workdays.
Entry Task:
1. Do you believe that non-violent
protesting is the only way to protest?

Why or why not?
Look at bottom of p. 181
2 minute pair share:

Discuss: what things do you agree with and disagree with as being GOOD GOALS in the GOALS column?
Ownership of the means of production--such as factories and farms-- by
"the people" instead of by private owners
Workers of the


"The Wobblies"
1916 -- Everett Massacre

Nov. 5th
Collective bargaining:

Negotiations between employers
and employee reps to agree upon benefits
such as wages, working conditions, and other
terms of employment
Boosted Union Membership
Strikes become more numerous after this
Chicago 1886: Haymarket Affair,
"scabs," violence, and public
Homestead Strike: 1892

Steel workers at Carnegie steel plant in Homestead, PA.
turned violent
Scabs (nonunion) workers brought in and union shut out for next 40 years
1894 Pullman Strike:
Government continues trend supportingmanagers
and owners against striking workers
What this turns into is a period where
Government favors Owners over Workers
Public largely turns against workers and unions
Chapter 15: Through Ellis Island and Angel Island:
The Immigrant Experience
The Cold War

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
Key Threads:

1. Communism
2. Appeasement
3. Civil Liberties during
times of national insecurity
4. Incidents and "Spin"
around War time
5. Economic Development--the importance of the Treaty of Versailles and the Marshal Plan
Winston Churchill: "An Iron Curtain has descended" Speech
Marshall Plan (1947)
Soviet A-bomb (1949)
Key Periods:

I. 1948-1953 (Peak)
1948–53 with the Berlin blockade and airlift, the formation of NATO, the victory of the communists in the Chinese civil war, and the Korean War.

II. 1958-1962
Another intense stage occurred in 1958–62 with the Cuban missile crisis, which resulted in a weapons buildup by both sides

III. Detente (1970s)

IV. The End: 1989-1991
Berlin Wall and collapse of Soviet Union
Key Events:
The Korean War (1950-1953)
Hot proxy-war within larger context of the Cold War
1 & 2. Communism and Appeasement
Churchill Iron Curtain Speech
3. McCarthy and the Fear of Communism

The thread of threats to civil liberties during times of national "insecurity"
Truman to Eisenhower

Ch. 21
Key Threads:

1. US Engagement or Isolationism?

2. Ideology vs. Nationalism--which force proved stronger in the 20th Century?

3.Truth in Government

4.Civil Rights

5.Economy—Recession Cycles and Politics
Politics: The Center Holds
Brown V. Board
Society: The New Frontier
The Military: The New Look
Quiz Friday from readings, on following terms:

1. Interstate Highway Act
2. bracero program
3. Brinksmanship
4. The New Look
5. domino theory
6. Geneva Accords
7. Eisenhower Doctrine
8. Brown Verses the Board of Education
9. Montgomery bus boycott
10. Civil Rights Act of 1957
11. Civil Rights Act of 1960
12. The New Frontier
13. The Great Society
14. Medicare (who opposed it and why?)
15. Sit-ins
16. Bay of Pigs
17. Cuban Missle Crisis
18. Kennedy Assassination and Warren Report
Sit ins
Thread Topic 1: Isolationism or Engagment in US Foreign

Likely Essay Question:

What increases our security and is less expensive in the long run?
Domino Theory
Kennedy speech cuban missle crisis 1:06:51-1:08:16

Guns of August and Causation...
From Affluent Society and Pop Culture, to Kennedy
on TV...

1960-68: from Romance to Rancor
Eisenhower and New Look:
Kennedy and the New Frontier
Guns of August--Barbara Tuchman
US History
January 5, 2011

1964-1972: Civil Rights, Johnson's Great Society, and Social Upheaval
The Cold War and Civil Rights--key threads
Rise of German Power in the 1930s

1. Rebuilding the German military

2. Militarizing the Rhineland
Nov. 8, 1942
Operation Torch--the Invasion of North Africa

Nov. 23, 1943
Tehran Conference

December 1944
Battle of the Bulge

June 6, 1944

Spring 1945
Hitler defeated
VE Day

[After Kennedy] . . .came Lyndon B. Johnson,
a practiced politician.
Johnson inherited a messy U.S. involvement in a civil war in Vietnam, which grew increasingly messier in his five years in office.
Anti-war sentiment grew almost as fast and kept Johnson from seeking a second full term.

Wiegand, Steve (2009-05-04). USHFD (p. 19). John Wiley and Sons.
Civil Rights Movement Kicks into High Gear: 1964-1968
Followed many of Kennedy's proposals (ideas), such as:
Non-violent Protesting vs.
Black Power Movement
MLK Malcolm X
Song: "American Pie" by Don Mclean

What were the 1980s?

"Morning in America" (i.e. optimism about America and faith in the future comes back)
a time of conservative political revival--hippies and big government were out, low-tax capitalism (money-making) was in
The last big cold-war crisis followed by the sudden end of the Cold-War
Reagan's frequent movie references:

"The Evil Empire" from Star Wars (when talking about the Soviet Union)
"Go ahead, make my day" (Clint Eastwood from a Dirty Harry movie)
"Where we're going, we don't need roads" (line from Back to the Future)
Reagan was a former 2-term governor of California and a B-movie actor
There was a strong relationship between the Soviet-Afghanistan war at the end of the 1980s and the 9/11 terrorist attacks
Entry Task: write the following information down

I. Causes of World War II
1. Unfair (harsh and heavy-handed) Treaty of Versailles
Blaming whole blame for World War I on Germany led to the wounded pride and resentments that enabled (allowed for) the rise of fascist dictators

2. Stock speculation (gambling), weak banks, and the resulting Economic Depression
Led to global fears of basic job security (survival) that allowed for demagogues (dictators) to rise up
3. Appeasement of aggression
trying to give bullies--Hitler, Mussolini, Japan--what they want in the hopes that they will stop being agressive
J. Edgar Hoover

Background of the aggression by the Axis Powers
World War II: frame of reference and overview of events leading up to WWII

Throughout 30’s Japan, Italy, and Germany are moving to carve out spheres of influence and dominate their respective regions in Asia and Europe
Will reach back and look at diplomacy from 1920-1940


WWII breaks out in 1939 in Poland
German Soviet Non-Aggression pact 1939-1941
Russia is also invading Poland
1940 Germany invades simultaneously the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, and France
By July of 1940 Germany has successfully conquered France
1940 Russia will invade Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (Russia trying to reclaim territory it had to give up in WWI through the Brest-Litovsk Treaty
Russia trying to reclaim territory it had to give up at the end of WWI

--Russia and Germany are diametrically opposed in their political ideologies: Communism vs. Fascism

--Germany will invade Russia in June of 1941

--By the time France falls (July 1940), only Great Britain will stand alone in Europe free from German/Italian/Russian Control

--From FDR’s point of view, there is a major problem in terms of German, Italian, Japanese agression

The Pacific Theater:

Japan military expansion in 1930s
The U.S., after the Spanish American War, had holdings in the Pacific
Guam and the Philippines, Wake Island, and Hawaii, Samoa
US has strategic holdings now in the Pacific that are going to come under threat by Japan and what Japan considers its sphere of influence
Japan is going through its own industrial revolution and is becoming more active internationally
Japan knows she is the major player in Asia militarily, economically, and culturally (Asian)
1930s Japan invades Manchuria (1931), invades 5 northern provinces of China (1933), 1937 invades farther south into China

The US during the 1930s

--The U.S. is not getting involved internationally except for Latin America
--But throughout 1930s, U.S. becomes aware and increasingly concerned about this aggression around the world though it will remain isolationist
--Roosevelt sees 3 fascist powers who are not going to be satisfied with stopping this aggression and expansion.

-Roosevelt’s key concerns with Germany, Italy, and Japan:

Powerful States
Spheres of influence
Expansion through force that is insatiable
Fascist ideology that is driving this expansion with closed economic spaces
If successful, US will suffer economically, politically, and
If allowed to continue, FDR believes the US will eventually be fighting for its own survival

1. Armed neutrality:

Roosevelt’s belief that in order for the U.S. to stay out of the war we have to support our Allies who are in the war
and prepare for war
Do not mistake armed neutrality with neutrality acts--which is the US through legislation trying to establish through law U.S. isolationism
FDR’s fear is that if US hangs back too long, and doesn’t help countries like Great Britain and China, we will wake up some morning in a world where we will have no choice but to face these fascist powers
Will enable allies to stay involved in war so that FDR has time to prepare American people.

2. Fall of France (July 1940)
signals last true line of defense for western world is Great Britain
3. Destroyer-base deal (Sept. 1940)
4. Lend-Lease Act (Feb. 1941)
a. The President of the U.S. can lend or lease any equipment or materials to any nation that he feels is important to our defense
5. Greer Incident (September 4, 1941)

1. Google "New York Times Machine"

2. Click on the first link.

3. IN the date box at the bottom, type in 09/05/1941

4. Examine the front page.

5. In a separate tab, open up the article titled "Torpedoes Go Wild" and start reading so that you are ready to discuss.
6. Shoot on Sight Order
a. leads to undeclared naval warfare between U.S. and Germany
b. Background: U.S. as get into March 1941 US is escorting war material into G.B.
c. England who had taken over control of Iceland now gives the US control of Iceland
e. Neutrality patrols, Germany expands its no-go zones, US gains control of Iceland

7. Japan's lack of natural resources
a. Japan believes has to expand its control of territory in the Pacific to gain access to natural resources.
b. Tie into issue of access to China

8. Open Door Notes/Chinese sovereignty
a. China invades China and breaks the policy of the Open Door

--US Claims of China's Sovereignty
Open Door Policy (1899-1900)
9-Power Treaty (1921-1922) (United States, China, Imperial Japan, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal)
Japan recognizes China's sovereignty
Agrees not to go to war with China
But in 1930's Japan moves into China until war is officially declared in 1937

Tripartite Pact (1940)
Germany, Italy and Japan
Recognize each others spheres of influence
Mutual defense agreement

--verifies FDR's worst fears, that these fascist countries are trying to carve up the world.

--Japan and U.S. getting crossways with each other
Events leading to war between the U.S. and Japan

--After Hitler starts to expand in Europe, Japan sees its opportunity while the world is distracted
--In addition to China, Japan moves into French Indo-China and the Dutch East Indies
--Leads to US Embargo on goods going into Japan
--US had been supplying natural resources to Japan
--Japan stops move into China and Dutch East Indies in 1940 after Embargo as does not want to anger U.S. too much at this point
--Hitler in 1941, moves into Russia, then Japan reasserts herself in the Pacific
--Really upsets FDR, so he increases the list of items under embargo
--closes Panama Canal
--Freezes Japanese investments in the U.S.

--Backs Japan into a corner. The U.S. demands that the U.S. pull out of all Asian countries
--Japan knows that diplomacy will not work considering U.S. demands
--Japan is down to 6 months of oil reserves at time of attack on Pearl Harbor

10. Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941)
11. War Powers Act (12/18/41): gave FDR authority to reorganize business and industry
12. War Production Board (1942): conversion of industry to war materials production
1941: 3 million auto mobiles made
Next 4 years only 139 were made
U.S. becomes "arsenal of democracy"
300,000 warplanes
89,000 tanks
3 million machine guns
7 million rifles
By end of war U.S. is making fully one half of all goods in the world
13. War financing and the Revenue Act (Victory Tax)
1939: 4 million taxpayers
90% of workers were paying taxes by the end of the war
Taxes paid for 45% of military costs, rest came from government spending (185 billion worth of
war bonds

15. Office of Price Administration (1942)
Setup to deal with challenge of feeding, clothing and equipping both U.S. and allied soldiers in addition to U.S. citizens
Led to widespread consumer goods shortages and sharp price increases
OPA thus created to ration goods and control prices
16. Worker migration and women's empowerment
3.5 million people from rural areas left the South for cities for manufacturing jobs
After the 1920s saw women leave the workforce only to retreat from the workforce during the G.D., WWII increased the status of women
350,00 women served in the
Women's Army Corps (WAC)
8 million entered the workforce
National day-care program established so women could work full-time
17. African Americans
500,000 plus leave the South to join industrial work-force
Freed many from the bondage of tenant-farming and sharecropping
Number of African Americans moving to West Coast cities such as Seattle, Portland, and Los Angeles rose significantly
African Americans did join military but in segregated units and working mostly as stevedores: loading ships, driving trucks, digging latrines, handling supplies and mail, etc.
Mexican-Americans and the Bracero Program (1942)
When rural farmers moved west, a labor shortage on farms ensued
Before war federal government was forcing migrant laborers back to Mexico, now wanted them back in the U.S.
Mexican government demanded fair working conditions
Bracero Program thus created:
Mexico would provide workers on year-long contracts
200,000 workers came to the U.S. to work under the program entering the western U.S. packed in cattle cars on trains
200,000 plus workers also entered as undocumented workers

Led to ugly racial incidents and racist editorial articles in Los Angeles and other parts of the Southwest U.S.
Southern California saw constant conflict between white U.S. service members and Mexican American gangs/teenage "zoot-suiters"
This despite 300,000 Mexican-Americans served in the war and earned the highest percentage of Congressional Medals of Honor (for uncommon bravery in combat) of any minority group
19. Zoot Suit Riots (June 1943)
US service members, civilians, off-duty police fight against young latinos and other minorities
White anger ostensibly aimed at minorities (including Blacks and Filipinos wearing Zoot Suits as seen as waste of fabric and extravagant during wartime and unpatriotic
Triggered attacks in other U.S. cities such as Chicago, San Diego, Oakland, New York City, Philadelphia
Racial attacks happened during a time of fear about a Mexican crime wave following the "Sleepy Lagoon Murder"
Discrimination against Japanese Americans

20. war relocation camps
setup under FDR's Order 9066 (Feb. 1942)
120,000 nisei removed from homes
sent to relocation camps in western US (see images)

The Allied Strategy and Drive toward Berlin (from mid-1942)

Strategy was to stop Germany first, then Japan
With breakthrough radar system, British and US made great gains at stopping U-boat attacks on allied shipping
Russia demands opening of Western Front to relieve pressure on them from the Eastern Front
Churchill says Allies not ready in 1942 so decides on North Africa Campaign
North Africa Campaign: Operation Torch

Nov. 8, 1942 British and U.S. land in Morocco and Algeria
British army was pushing U.S. east across Libya
U.S. Army very "green";
Eisenhower and Patton earn their reputations
May 12, 1943 250,000 Germans and Italians surrender; all of North Africa now belongs to Allies
Sicily and Italy: July 10, 1943 250,000 troops land in Sicily; by Aug. 17 completely in Allied hands
July 25, Mussolini is deposed by the Italian king
Italian government offers to switch sides
Germany sends troops to Italy to stop this
21. Tehran Conference
Fall 1943, FDR and Churchill meet Stalin for first time in Tehran (capital of Iran)
Planned invasion of France
Agreed to creation of United Nations
Bombing of Europe before D-Day

Air campaign most practical effect was to wear down German air power
Bombs missed their targets more often than not
350,000 civilians killed

D-Day: Operation Overlord

Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike), future U.S. President, named Supreme Allied Commander
Significance of the Pearl Harbor attack:
Rallies the U.S. to declare war
Military scholars agree today that if the U.S. had not joined the war at this point, there is no way that the Allies could have won the war
Japan did not understand the isolationist debate going on in the U.S. and how the attack would rally a majority of Americans

Military setbacks weren’t as significant as thought
Shallow harbor made many ships recoverable
Aircraft carriers unaffected
Battle of Coral Sea and Midway (May-June 1942), will show the supremacy of carrier-based (out of visual range) nature of modern naval warfare

Exposes myth of white supremacy

Postwar World (1945-1963)

What happened out of WWII that explains our society today?
How did it shape the presidencies of Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy?
WWII is one of the most important events of 20th Century in understanding the world today
WWII acts as catalyst to speed up the process of modernization that brings us to the modern world today

1. Catalyst
a. War ends the Great Depression and links society to the post-WWII world and its prosperity (WWII is the lynchpin)
b. Lays foundation for tremendous post-war prosperity (worldwide and overtime)
c. The U.S. becomes a creditor nation (e.g. the Marshall Plan)

2. Deficit spending
a. To fund war spending (follows Keynesian Economics)

3. Purchasing power
a. Increased during WWII but also leads to excess savings

4. Excess savings
a. During WWII, full employment and increased purchasing power but not many consumer goods to buy

5. Consumerism (autos, homes, electronics)
a. Boom starts after war as consumer appetite is pent-up going back to the time of the Great Depression
b. Triple use of electricity in the 1950s (tied to new electronics)

6. Economic boom / baby boom
a. Prosperity and peace together leads to increased marriages and more children

Baby Boom (1946-1964)
1930s--18 births per 1000 people
1947-1957--25 births per 1000 people

b. Feeds consumer boom

7. Technological revolution (radios, televisions, computers)
a. War started phasing out the industrial revolution and guiding the economy towards the technological revolution that we are still experiencing today (towards the “knowledge” and “skills” based economy)

8. automation/computers
a. Creates an economy that is increasingly productive and more precise than before

Automation: The development of mechanical devices as substitutes for human endeavors (e.g. machines making machines; computers doing intricate bureaucratic and administrative tasks that are quantifiable and precise)

Leads to great breakthroughs in science and medicine

9. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)
a. Best example of government involvement in these breakthroughs
b. Makes great breakthroughs

Scientific Advances in WWII (WWII acts as catalyst)
Atomic bomb
Atomic energy today
Radar/sonar (developed by Great Britain catalyzed by the Battle of Britain)
Catalyst for air travel today

Due to need for assisting troops to ward off diseases (e.g. malaria). Reduces disease and death from diseases today
But also contributes to modern-day environmentalist movement (e.g. DDT)

Blood plasma/blood bank (Charles R. Drew)
Needed for saving troops, then for saving lives today
Process for separating plasma from blood (for preservation)
In WWI, those soldiers wounded 9/10 died
WWII, 9/10 will live
Social impact: only took blood samples from white people at first
Keep white and black blood donors blood in separate blood banks
Charles Drew: African American blood researcher responsible for breakthroughs with blood-bank process (head of Red Cross blood bank system); will resign over this issue
No scientific justification for this policy
Even though fighting war on basis of democratic war aims (against racist fascist powers), have this racist policy

10. Demographic shifts: shifts of population
a. Shift in numbers of blacks and whites pouring into the cities
Detroit, Oregon, Washington, West Coast, etc. (North and West U.S.)
Blacks and whites living in close quarters with each other
Once war is over, out of the cities to the suburbs

11. Suburbs
Made possible through automation
Highway building
Industries decentralize operations to save money and move

12. Cultural revolution
a. Due to post-war fast-pace of life

13. Knowledge explosion
a. Technology driving economy now
b. Requires more educated workforce
Education statistics
1940: only 15% of 18-22 year-olds in college; most only have an 8th-grade education
1965: more than 44% will be in college; majority have 12th-grade education
College is changed to be viewed as an entitlement

14. Popular (mass) culture
a. Technology and affluence make this possible
b. E.g. spectator sports, literature (science fiction), art (e.g. Andy Warhol), Marilyn Monroe (glamor models/actors/actresses), Rock and Roll (e.g. Elvis)
c. Provides society with a sense of a place to escape from chaos and fast-pace of life; where people can step out of reality of life and relax
d. Critics of mass culture say it is destructive
Brings out the worst in some people: violence for example
e. Defenders of mass culture: it is really a kind of psychological support system; helping us to deal with the pressures. May resolve issues for people on an emotional and psychological level--still issue of debate today

15. Television
a. Promoting and acting as catalyst for mass culture
b. Late 1960s 96% of all Americans have television sets
c. People all relating to same issues: diet, music, sports, news, etc.
d. Mass culture dominates

16. Social revolutions
a. Gender, class, race
b. War accelerates changes in these demographic categories
c. Social changes will not take place on a wider level until the late 1950s and 1960s
d. Will be a delay in social changes from the end of the war (and the “Greatest Generation” and then the children of this generation: the “Baby-Boomers”

Frame of reference
is changed for women, minorities: Those seeking social change realize the possibility for public action within themselves
a. After the war and this realization, there is not going back for larger society

18. WWII Labor impacts on social revolutions:
a. Women and blacks gain sense of empowerment in WWII
b. After war, societal pressure will be for women to go back to domestic life
c. Many of these women did not want to go back (they wanted to stay in the workforce)

Statistics: Women in the Workforce:
Women made up 25% of workforce
lower/working class
By 1960:
40% permanently in workforce
Middle class

d. Will feed the civil rights, feminist, and labor movements
e. Children see women in workforce and effects generational attitudes
f. Influences feminist movement

19. Betty Friedan (1921-2006) author of The Feminine Mystique (1963)
a. A founder and first President of The National Organization for Women (NOW) in New York City, 1966

20. Impact on Class structure
a. Postwar period leads to affluence in America and growing middle-class
b. Middle-class is more and more linked to requiring 2 incomes to maintain middle-class status
c. Technology is changing farming to “agribusinesses”; remaining farmers become the big land-owners
d. Automation poor: Those who lack the training and education necessary for the workforce
Uneducated young people
Children of female-headed families
e. United States Poverty Level (1950-1965)
20% or 1/5th of all Americans
50% or ½ of all African Americans

21. Conglomerate mergers
a. Another phase of big corporate mergers
b. Different from 1890s and 1920s
Companies had horizontal and vertical integration (with businesses like themselves or related to their businesses)
c. New post-war mergers are large companies buying companies unrelated to themselves which is a hedge against downturns in certain sectors
d. Statistics
By 1960 600 companies (½ of 1% of all businesses in the U.S.) control 50% of all business income
e. Marks a true redistribution of wealth and a concentration of wealth at the extreme top

Domestic Consolidation (1945-1963)
Postwar World (1945-1963)

War acts as a catalyst to change society in sweeping ways up until today
How did WWII impact on the national gov’t and on society as a whole-->domestic consolidation
Occurs during presidencies of Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy
Situation is such, politically speaking, that it is difficult to get any change--Truman and Kennedy are going to try and get some change
All 3 presidents are going to be able to only shore up whatever change has come to that point but will not be able to take reform and change further...because:

A. First, country must focus on foreign affairs (Cold War)--once war is over, we have to focus on international community

B. 2nd: the politics that are occurring in congress
Conservative Coalition: Congressional group made up of northern Republicans and Southern Democrats (going back to 1938)
Oppose extending Roosevelt’s welfare state
Kennedy and Eisenhower did not have an ability to deal with Congress in terms of reaching across party lines
None of these presidents have FDR’s touch to bridge party divides

C. Third, creation of numerous special interest groups (make it difficult for President and Congress to find out where the general welfare of the country is); more difficult to bring consensus together

D. Fourth and finally, Americans really do want government to provide economic safety net and solve problems coming along with so much post-war change, but at the same time there is a desire to focus on protecting traditional values such as individualism and self-help
Larger society more concerned with shoring up and protecting gains that have come to lower classes, middle class and wealthy (mainstream society) than there is a concern to help minorities, civil rights, women’s issues, etc
Domestic Consolidation = on domestic issues, want to consolidate the gains for the mainstream only

23. Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)

24. Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)

25. John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

26. Cold War

27. Northern republicans

28. Southern democrats

29. Conservative revolution

30. Welfare state programs

31. Special interests

32. Bread and butter liberalism--
a. Focuses politics on economic issues as opposed to an ideological liberalism focusing on social issues such as civil rights, gender rights, poverty, etc.

23. Harry S. Truman (1884-1972)
Born in Lamar, Missouri
High school education
Farmed for 12 years
Captain in the Field Artillery during WWI
Men’s clothing store owner
Becomes part of political machine under political boss Tom Pendergast in K.C. Missouri
Pendergast handpicks Truman for 1934 U.S. Senate race. Political career before this time:
County judge: 1922
City Judge: 1927-1934
U.S. Senator: 1934-1944
Vice President: 1945
President: 1945-1953
Truman attributes:
a late bloomer
ardent New Dealer (supported government programs/interventions to help the disadvantages)
Fair-minded (lost 1920s election because opposed KKK)
Believes blacks should be treated equally but also that segregation should remain
Strong capacity to grow in laying foundation for civil rights movement (desegregation of U.S. military during Korean War)

34. Fair Deal
a. 21 point-program laid out in Sept. 1945 address to Congress what he intends to try to achieve domestically
b. Focuses on welfare-state programs
Unemployment compensation
Universal healthcare (Johnson will later trim down this plan with Medicare and Medicaid)

35. Employment Act of 1946:
President responsible for full employment
President’s council of economic advisers
Annual report on the economic status of the nation
Changes responsibility for full employment in the economy from the private sector to the government

36. Presidential Council of Economic Advisers

37. Economic Bill of Rights
a. Employment Act comes out of this idea by FDR developed during New Deal

Truman is going to spend most of his energy transforming the economy back from a war-time economy to a consumer-based economy
How to bring 10 million veterans back into employment in the economy after war demobilization?

40. National Security Act (1947)
a. Comes out of experience of Pearl Harbor
b. An effort to correct our security system so that this type of attack will not happen again
c. Creates:
i. National Security Council: job is to advise the President
ii. Department of Defense (created as new cabinet level position) consolidates all military branches under the Secretary of Defense
iii. Joint Chiefs of Staff: the ranking officers of the major military branches to
iv. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
1. Carry out HUMINT Intelligence and Espionage
2. Coordinate intelligence and analysis

38. G.I. Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)(1944)
a. G.I. Bill of Rights
Education payments
Home, business, farm loans
Job assistance
Wage adjustments

Over 2 million will take advantage of college education benefits
Politically very popular
Provides more highly educated workforce for larger society and economy
Downsides: pushes out female students as colleges feel overrun with applicants

Atomic Energy Act (1946)
a. Concern Truman has to deal with question of what are we to do with atomic energy in terms of policy?
b. Creates Atomic Energy Commission: oversight of nuclear research and reactors for civilian use
c. President as Commander in Chief of Armed Forces: oversight of nuclear weapon use; only president can have the power to choose to use these weapons

Eisenhower will change view on containment

1. John F. Dulles (1888-1959)
Well known international lawyer
Secretary of State (1953-1959)
Believes communism is the greatest threat to the civilized world and western world
Dulles wants something different than containment because he wants something better than the status quo
Wants U.S. to be more assertive

2. Dulles’ Cold War Strategy
Peaceful liberation (attract others to the American, democratic, capitalist model)
Radio Free Europe (propaganda along iron curtain)
Covert operations (undercover activities behind the iron curtain)
Important that U.S. uses threat of massive retaliation (nuclear war) against countries like China if they aggressively move to expand into other countries
Must fight communist everywhere, especially third world countries; must make these countries want to follow our way of life

3. National Security Council Report (policy paper) #68 (1950)
Comes on heels of Soviet acquisition of atomic bomb and China becoming a communist nation under Mao Ze Dong
NSC 68 argues that Russia is seeking world domination
Triples defense budget to build military
Spread military aid and assistance worldwide
Becomes blueprint for Eisenhower through Johnson’s presidency and Vietnam War

Eisenhower is only going to go with massive retaliation and brinksmanship strategies China; with Russia, uses traditional containment (as it has nuclear weapons)

4. Military industrial complex (explained in Eisenhower’s farewell speech)
Feared U.S. becoming armed state with military and the weapons industries becoming interdependent with entrenched interests to proliferate weapons both at home and abroad


5. John F. Kennedy
Non-alignment nations (map)
Countries that are newly independent not wanting to get caught up in the Cold War “game” between the superpowers
Many non-aligned nations will play Russia and U.S. off against each other
U.S. and Russia (Eisenhower and Kennedy) would try to pressure these nations to choose a side
Kennedy creates organizations to try to attract non-aligned nations:
Alliance for Progress: to extend to Latin American nations social and economic assistance
Peace Corps: to send in volunteers into third world countries to help with education, agricultural development, other social assistance programs
Kennedy becomes very involved in African “nation-building”

7. Cuba and Cuban Missile Crisis
Bay of Pigs (April 1961)
CIA backed attempt to overthrow Castro and Cuban communist government
...Uses Cuban exiles/nationalists in the American Southeast to “invade” Cuba
Colossal failure: U.S. global propaganda loss
Castro feels threatened, turns to Russia, Russia moves to secretly install missiles in Cuba in the summer and early fall of 1962
In dealing with Cuba Kennedy uses the strategy of brinksmanship with the Russian’s for the only time during the Cold War
Reform 1964-1966

Past reform movements
Progressive movement 1900-1917
New Deal

Short, intense period of social reform

What was reform and then what was the reaction to this reform (basis of swings between left and right today)?
Why does it come at this time?
First, Change in Frame of Reference comes of age in 1960s: Those seeking social change realize the the possibility for public action within themselves
Sons and daughters of WWII generation come of age during the 1960s; they have the change of reference and become more assertive with their rights

Second, Economic prosperity breeds reform
Those who feel economically secure (majority) is more open to reform during times of prosperity

Third, More young people attending college
Middle class and upper middle class students lead reform movement as not as concerned about economic security
Now they see their studies as a way to share what they have in terms of rights and social rights

Fourth, Kennedy’s influence (both in life and in death)
Kennedy started reform movement through his rhetoric
Advantaged should help disadvantaged
Kennedy was opposed by conservative coalition in Congress; was not as skilled as Johnson however to bring his vision to fruition
After Kennedy’s death, Johnson’s “masterful politics” and ability to work with and strong-arm Congress would finally push major reforms through
Johnson would cajole, threaten, compromise with Congress

1. Barry Goldwater (Johnson’s conservative opponent in 1964)
Conservative republican out of Arizona
1964 U.S. given a stark choice between Goldwater and Johnson
Against New Deal legislation and the welfare state
Johnson will win enormous victory (486 to 52 in the Electoral College/61% to 39% in the popular vote); Johnson has “mandate” to impose his reforms

2. Liberal consensus
Johnson comes to represent this consensus
Consensus Liberalism
Anti-communism in foreign policy
Diverse or mixed economy (manufacturing and service-based economy)
Solve social problems through the new social sciences and government programs

3. Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973)
1937-1948 (U.S. Congress)
1949-1960 (U.S. Senator)
1960 seeks Democratic nomination for President; loses to Kennedy
1961-1963 (Vice President)
1963-1969 (U.S. President)

Degree in teaching
Ardent Rooseveltian New Dealer
When gets to power, wants to take New Deal and go beyond it
When takes power wants to take Kennedy’s New Frontier agenda and implement them (make them into law)
Then he wants to go beyond New Frontier and implement his “Great Society”
JFK provides the rhetoric and theory to move beyond “bread and butter liberalism” to a greater welfare state program

More on Johnson...
4. Tax reform
LBJ puts in place sizable tax cut to stimulate economy (10 billion dollars)

5. War on Poverty
Help the poor with employment
Economic Opportunity Act

6. Economic Opportunity Act
Creates Office of Economic Opportunity with large budget to create economic programs to reduce poverty
E.g. Job Corps, Head Start, Community Action Program
Job corps for students who haven’t finished high school to both finish high school education and train them for jobs to more easily enter high paying jobs
CAP works to permit people in poorer regions to develop and run their own community programs
Head Start works to help young children from poorer backgrounds to socialize them early into education/society

7. Civil Rights Act (1964)
Kennedy had moved towards this more firmly in 1963 motivated by MLK
Johnson takes Kennedy’s idea and makes it stronger especially in terms of enforcement
Prohibits racial discrimination in employment, private services and public accomodation
Private services (prohibits discrimination)
In any services that a private business is in to make money (theaters, hotels, sports events, etc.)
Public accommodations
National, state, and municipal parks, swimming pools, etc.
Provided enforcement mechanisms, e.g. withholding federal funds from public agencies that discriminate

8. Black voting rights
24th Amendment (1964) prohibits poll tax
“The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.”
Voting Rights Act (1965)
Prohibited education requirements where less than half the voting age population had been registered
Empowered the Attorney General to check registration and voting procedures in nine southern states

Through these acts Johnson is nationalizing civil rights
Appoints black heads of executive departments
E.g. Robert C. Weaver (Secretary of Housing and Urban Development) 1966-1968
1967 appoints Thurgood Marshall to Supreme Court (1908-1993)

Great Society programs (urban assistance, education, healthcare)

Urban assistance
Model Cities Act (1966)
Focused on economic development in cities and depressed regional areas
Funded employment, housing, education and health in targeted urban areas

medicare/medicaid (1965)
Medicare: provided elderly with universal compulsory medical insurance financed by social security taxes
Medicaid: authorized federal grants to supplement state financed medical care for poor people under 65

Education reform
Higher Education Act (1965)
Supports student loans, scholarships
Elementary and Secondary School Acts (1965-66)
Trying to provide K-12 school systems; first time federal govt helps private and parochial schools
Provide assistance for low-income schools

These are just some of Great Society programs. Others deal with transportation, environment, police protection in cities
Johnson will find out that he will be most remembered for Vietnam war, not these programs (initially)
Johnson’s achievements, criticisms, paradoxes


Drawing ideas from FDR’s New Deal and other presidents
Medicare drawn from Truman
Community action program and focus on poverty comes from JFK
Civil Rights, Education, Healthcare are Johnson’s landmark reforms
Poverty rate drops from 20%-13% ; African American poverty rate reduced by 50% from 1963-1968
Standard of living for all Americans raised during the mid-60s

High cost of programs
Increases size of government (bureaucracy/agencies)
Started with Teddy Roosevelt, then in the New Deal, then during the 60s
Increases regulations
Raised expectations for social change (many of which could not be fulfilled)
Vietnam War and its costs boxes out financing for:
War on Poverty ($10 billion)
Medicare/Medicaid ($44 billion)
Vietnam ($140 billion)

Views of Johnson
Why despite LBJ’s successes was he not more popular?
Vietnam War and deception (e.g. Tonkin Gulf Resolution)
Johnson’s heavy-handed political maneuvering
Why was JFK more popular if he didn’t achieve as much domestically?

In sum, Great Society reforms were greatest period of reform in post-war period

If Domestic Consolidation and the Great Society reforms bookends the 1945-1966 period in terms of domestic policy, then Vietnam does the same thing internationally for this period; it is a cumulative event
Vietnam War (1950-1975); the longest war up until the war in Afghanistan in U.S. history
Textbook lays it out for you. You need to know two things:
1. The Presidents and how they slowly engage themselves in the war
2. The handful of events that reveal how the U.S. became involved

Truman Administration:
Vietnamese have constantly fought outsiders trying to control them: the Chinese, the French, WWII Japanese occupation, war ends and Vietnam wants to be independent but the French wanted to reoccupy
Truman wanted to avoid involvement, but he also wanted the French to be part of NATO (and containment policy)

French lose the battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954)
Eisenhower know the French are leaving, and does not want South Vietnam to fall to North Vietnam
He also wants the French to be part of NATO

Tries to engage in “nation-building”
Tries using counter-insurgency in Vietnam
Sends in 16,000 advisers to train the South Vietnamese to fight

Expands the war effort
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)
1965-1968: 500,000+ troops committed to Vietnam “Americanizing” the war
1968 Johnson resignation

Tries to engage in even more bombing than Johnson
Anti-war movement picks up at home
Forces Nixon to try to wind the war down, tries to start taking American troops out through “Vietnamization”
Nixon gets preoccupied with the Watergate affair
U.S. does pull out with understanding that the U.S. will continue to support the South (financially/militarily)
Once U.S. pulls out the South will then fall under President Ford in 1975

Anti-war issue

2 different groups in the US looking at Vietnam:

1. The President(s) and those in government and their supporters see this as an issue of the North (communists) invading the South and the U.S. has to “contain” communism. This works hand-in-hand with the “domino theory”
2. College professors, students, certain politicians and policy makers see this as a civil war within one country and it is not a war the U.S. should become involved in

The Reaction (1968-1980)
What triggers the reaction?

This conservative reaction is reacting to Johnson’s liberal reforms at home, and the Vietnam War abroad within society society gets divided against itself.
Bitter divisions develop

Post-industrial Economy (1960s-1970s):

Our economy is shifting over this time from manufacturing to services and communications
Past trends include shifting from manufacturing for heavy industry in the late 1800s, towards a consumer based economy through the 1920s, to the Post-WWII technology and consumer products production, then shifts to services and communications
At same time shifting from more expensive locals to less expensive locals
I.e. If most of early industry was in the Northeast and the Midwest where prices are higher (including labor wages), then corporations are now moving out of states that have high taxes and sizable unions; are now going to go to states with workers who are not unionized and have lower wages/taxes.
At same time newer service related jobs are lower paying
Manufacturers are moving into the South and the Mid-west and Northeast become the “rust-belt”
This pushes the population to the Southwest (the “sun-belt”)

In sum, an economic downturn (worst to that time since the Great Depression) is occurring during the 1970s exacerbating social tensions
Economic downturn is frightening because it is not one thing:
High inflation at same time as high unemployment
Energy crisis at the same time due to conflict in the Middle East of U.S. support for Israel in the Yom Kippur war and (1973) and the Iran crisis of 1979; leads to “oil shock” increasing oil and gas prices
White Americans resentful they are suffering economically while the Great Society programs are getting “handouts”

Other problems in the 70’s:

Confidence problem after post-war successes and confidence
Environmental crises (e.g. toxic waste being dumped into rivers)
Nuclear emergency “Three Mile Island” leads to fear of U.S. nuclear energy industry
Global hunger
Enemies (Cold War, Russia, Vietnamese, Iran,etc.)
What societal values should be embraced, who in society should have the power

These issues taken together leads a shift to “the New Right.” from Nixon through the 1970s culminating with election of Ronald Reagan (1980)

Presidents during this period:

Presidents are focusing on foreign affairs to the exclusion of domestic issues
Barry Goldwater conservative movement with candidacy in the 1964 election comes to a head with the 1968 election

Electorate changes in run up to 1968 election:

Baby-boomers aging and themselves moving towards more conservative politics

1. Election of 1968:
Richard M. Nixon (Republican): Elect. College 301 (43.4% popular vote)
Hubert Humphrey (Democrat): Elect. College 191 (43.7% popular vote)
George C. Wallace (Independent): Elect. College 46 (13.5% popular vote)
a weather vane for conservative movement and shift to right
2. Nixon as centralist
Taps into many americans concerned with the size of government
Concerned with civil discord at home (not necessarily war abroad)
MLK assassination (April 1968)
RFK assassination in L.A. June 1968
Chicago Democratic Convention riots
3. Silent majority
Everyday Americans who are non-demonstrators
The hard working core of voters
Nixon’s supporters want shift to center first, then will shift to right with Reagan

Richard M. Nixon
House of Representatives 1946-1950
U.S. Senate 1950-53
Vice President 1953-1961
President 1969-1973
Pursues “New Federalism”

5. New Federalism
Revenue sharing
Federal Government will take federal money and give it to state/municipal governments to spend at the local level (part of government “downsizing” movement)

6. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Responding to special interest groups (Environmentalists/organizations) putting pressure on politics

7. 26th Amendment 1971
“The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.”
Response to Vietnam War anti-war movement and fact that many 18 year olds could be drafted but denied the right to vote

Nixon in foreign affairs:

Nixon going to try to get out of Vietnam war with Peace with Honor policy
Put more and more responsibility for war on Vietnamese (“Vietnamization)
Nixon China breakthrough: opens up relations with People’s Republic of China (1972)

8. Watergate Affair (1972-1974)
1972 election burglary to break into Democratic National headquarters at the Watergate Hotel
Nixon gets caught trying to cover up the crime
Nixon is forced to resign in 1974

9. Gerald Ford (1973-1976)
Vice-President of Nixon who takes over after Nixon resignation
House of Representatives 1948-1973
Vice President 1973
A “caretaker” President trying to help heal country after late-60s turmoil and Watergate
Pardons Nixon, very controversial at the time
Fall of Saigon (1975)
High inflation

Fall of Saigon
Full transcript