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Transcript of Metis Uprising
The Red River flows northward through the Red River Valley and firms the border between the United States of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada. RED RIVER RESISTANCE
The majority of the Metis people settled in the Red River area. The area used to be controlled by the HBC then they sold a majority of rights to Rupert's Land to the New Dominion of Canada in 1869. The Metis resisted the takeover of their homeland. They went to Upper Fort Garry and took it's contents of canons, arms, and food supplies leading to what is known today as the Red River Resistance. THE METIS
The Metis were an indigenous first people of Canada. They emerged out of the relations of Indian women and European men. The Metis adopted the lifestyles of their parents, blending the values and lifestyles of both cultures to form a unique culture of their own. During the summers they gathered berries and farmed their small vegetable gardens along the rivers. In the fall they would go on a buffalo hunt to provide enough meat to get them through the winter. The winter was spent in trapping activities, in which the whole family participated. WHY THE METIS WERE UPSET AT THE HBC AND CANADIAN GOVERNMENT
The Metis people were upset at the Hudson’s Bay Company and the Canadian government because they wanted to transfer the land into Canada without consulting them. LOUIS RIEL
Riel was a Canadian politician and founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Metis people of the Canadian Prairies. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government. He returned to what is now the province of Saskatchewan to represent the Metis grievances to the Canadian government. This resistance escalated into a military confrontation known as the North-West rebellion of 1885. It ended in his arrest, trial, and execution on a charge of high treason. Riel was born 22 October 1844, and he died at the age of 41 on the 16 November. The Metis Uprising THOMAS SCOTT AFFAIR
After the Metis took over Fort Garry and the Red River people elected the provisional government, some settlers from Ontario tried to overthrow the government.In February 1870, the government at Red River arrested some of the settlers. In March 1870, it convicted and shot Thomas Scott. Riel had the option of sparing Scotts life, but he didn't. Some people considered the action justifiable, some considered it inexcusable. MANITOBA ACT
The Manitoba Act created the province of Manitoba. It was adopted by Parliament in response to the Métis concerns of the provisional government led by Louis Riel. Riel was a big influence on the Manitoba Act since it was based on his list of rights. The Red River colony and its surroundings would become the province of Manitoba, which was a small area around the Red River Colony. Unlike other provinces, Manitoba would have its land and other resources controlled by Ottawa. The victory for the Métis was the guarantee that they would receive title for the lands they already farmed and land for their children. THE METIS AND LOUIS RIEL AFTER THE RED RIVER RESISTANCE
After the 1885 Resistance, the large number of non-Aboriginal settlers resulted in disruption of the Métis’ traditional lifestyles. From 1885 to 1930, the Métis had difficulty adapting to the rapidly changing way of life in the Prairie West. Throughout the nineteenth century, the Métis used a mixed economy that included harvesting seasonal plants and animal resources, supplemented with farming and wage labour. After 1885, however, the Métis began to rely heavily on low paying seasonal jobs to support themselves. Many ended up living in poverty. Riel was the undisputed spiritual and political head of the short-lived 1885 Rebellion. He never carried arms and hindered the work of his military head, Gabriel Dumont. Riel was influenced by his belief that he was chosen to lead the Métis people. On May 15, just after the fall of Batoche, Riel surrendered to Canadian forces and was taken to Regina to stand trial for treason.
SECOND METIS UPRISING
On March 19, 1885, Riel formed a provisional government and armed force, centred in the small Saskatchewan town of Batoche. The strategy was to gain the Canadian government’s attention regarding a list of grievances in the Saskatchewan Valley about land rights and political power.
A week later, about 100 North West Mounted Police and volunteers marched towards Batoche, They intended to intimidate Riel and his supporters; about 1,000 Metis and a few hundred white settlers. Most Métis communities on the prairies did not take part in the North West Rebellion.
The police met up with approximately 200 Métis south of the town near a village called Duck Lake.
A Métis and Cree approached the police waving a white blanket. An armed NWMP interpreter rode out to meet them. The Cree pushed the Mountie’s rifle away, an action interpreted as an attempt to grab it.
Fearing an ambush, the police and volunteers opened fire but were quickly cut down by the Métis and a handful of natives hiding in the bushes. The NWMP were forced to retreat with 10 dead and 13 wounded. Only four Métis and one Indian were killed at Duck Lake.
Riel watched the battle on horseback, holding a wooden cross and praying aloud. He hadn’t planned a fight but interpreted the Métis victory as a sign from God that his cause was just.
The Battle of Duck Lake was costly for Riel. He lost the support of most of the white settlers who rejected armed conflict.
Throughout the prairies, the eruption of violence increased the threat of an Indian uprising. Settlers in Edmonton retreated to an old fort fearing 2,000 armed Cree warriors on the nearby reserves.
Lovisa McDougal helped other settlers prepare old guns and ammunition at the fort:
"We are living in the most intense excitement. We expect any hour to hear the Indians have broken out. Messengers have been sent from Riel to our Indians across the river. Word has been sent around to all the Indians north of us."
But the next flashpoint of the Rebellion was at an isolated Saskatchewan settlement called Frog Lake (near present day Lloydminster).
On April 2, 1885 Cree warriors rode to Frog Lake to demand food. When the local Indian agent (a non-native government representative) refused to give them food, he was shot. The warriors looted the settlement and murdered nine settlers, including two priests. LOUIS RIEL – HERO OR TRAITOR?
Louis Riel was considered one of the most important figures in Canada. He could be considered a hero because he led the Metis and sent their petitions to the government. He was a spokesperson and tried to improve the Metis social status and remind the Canadian government o their presence. From the English Canadian’s point of view, he was a traitor for killing Thomas Scott.
THE METIS OF SOUTH BRANCH
The people who settled in the South Branch communities knew they would face the same challenges they had faced at Red River. The Metis of South Branch sent lots of petitions asking to correct problem, but Canada’ government would not respond. In 1884, a leader from South Branch communities, Gabriel Dumont, went to seek the help of Louis Riel. CHANGES THE MANITOBA ACT INCLUDED
The Manitoba Act was a response to the Metis petitions. The Manitoba Act created the province of Manitoba. Manitoba was the Red River settlement and the area surrounding it. The Metis were granted some land to farm, but they were kept waiting for it. Many Metis fled to Saskatchewan, and Louis Riel fled to the Unted States. The BNA act was drafted by Canadians at the Quebec conference in 1864 and passed by the British parliament in 1867. The BNA serves as a base document for the Canadian Constitution. By Emily and Chey