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Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

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Chris Softley

on 14 October 2016

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Transcript of Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

Know the long-term and short-Term effects of exercise on the body systems
P3 - Describe the long-term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system.
P4 - Describe the long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
M2 - Explain the long-term effects on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems.
Long Term Effects
ELEMENTS
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Produce a mind map in pairs on what you think happens to the body when you exercise regularly!!!

* THINK - intensity of exercise and how often!
Muscular Strength
Energy Systems
Respiratory System
Skeletal System
Cardiovascular Responses
Cardiac Hypertrophy
Heart size increases
Left ventricle wall thickens
Contractions stronger
Increased Stroke Volume
Stroke Volume = Amount of blood pumped in one contraction.
At rest, stroke volume is higher after a CV endurance training programme.
Therefore the Heart can pump more blood per minute.

If the heart is stronger, how will this benefit the athlete??
Increase in Cardiac Output
Cardiac output = amount of blood pumped in 1 minute.
When playing sport, Cardiac Output will increase as a result of heart rate increasing.
Increased heart rate means your body can work at a high intensity.
Maximum Cardiac Output decreases with age - due to a decrease in maximum heart rate.
Cardiac Output increases around 5-7 times to make sure the working muscles get the required oxygen.

Do you know how to work out maximum heart rate? What is yours?
Decreased Resting Heart Rate
Resting heart rate decreases.
Reduced workload on the heart.
Heart rate after exercise returns to resting quicker.
Capillarisation
Development of capillary network.
Aerobic Exercise improves this within cardiac and skeletal muscle.
Increase in size and number of blood vessels.
Increase in blood volume/Haemoglobin
Amount of blood circulating the body.
Increases due to Capillarisation.
Increased haemoglobin means an increase in oxygen being transported around the body
REMEMBER: IF AN ATHLETE HAS A POOR RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, IT DOES NOT MATTER HOW EFFICIENT YOUR CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IS!!
Reduction in resting blood pressure
Research indicates regular exercise contributes to lower blood pressure.
The quicker blood pressure returns to normal after exercise the fitter the athlete.
Decreased recovery time
Fitter your heart, the quicker it returns to normal after exercise.
Cardiovascular system adapts quicker to demands of exercise.
Increased aerobic fitness
When you exercise over a period of weeks/months your body adapts.
Aerobic exercise increase the efficiency of your heart and lungs.
Resistance training increases muscle strength.
Adaptations depend highly on exercise undertaken.
SMART targets.
FITT principle.
Muscular Hypertrophy
Increase in muscle size and bulk.
Increase in muscle tone
Increase in the volume of contractile proteins (contract with greater force).
Males have greater potential due to hormone testosterone.
High intensity resistance training
Repetitive low intensity training
Increase in tendon strength / flexibility
Tendons adapt due to mechanical loading of regular exercise.
Strength
Types of training effects tendons differently.
Ligaments and tendons become more flexible with regular exercise.
Cartilage becomes thicker.
Increase in myoglobin stores
Increase in number of mitochondria
Increase in capilaries in the muscles
Increased storage of glycogen and fat
Increase in:
Oxidative capacity.
Mitochondria in the cells.
Supply of ATP.
Quantity of enzymes involved in respiration.
Ability to store myoglobin.
Glycogen and fat stores.
Increase in Muscle Strength
Muscles must work outside their normal intensity.
Overload - increase resistance (numbers and sets).
Increase in muscular endurance
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Anaerobic training - muscles become tolerant to lactic acid.
Endurance training - capillary network extends.
Greater volume of blood supply with oxygen and nutrients.
Muscles use more fat as a fuel source.
More efficient with oxygen.
Maximal oxygen consumption increased.
Increased bone calcium stores
Strength training (Against Gravity).
Weight-bearing activities.
Collagen - main protein of connective tissue.
Greater quantities of calcium deposited within the bone.
Osteoporosis.
Increased stretch of ligaments
Pliability.
fibroblast secretions - most common cells of connective tissue. Produce secretions to build fibres.
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
Most common type in the body.
Articulating surfaces of the bone.
Absorbs shock.
Regular exercise = becomes thicker.
Increased Production of synovial fluid
Becomes less viscous.
Range of movement at joint increases.
Connective tissue improves flexibility.
Increased Vital Capacity
Body needs more oxygen.
Oxygen diffusion = increases threefold above resting level.
Increase in minute ventilation (volume)
Breathing rate and total volume.
During exercise adults achieve approximately 15 times resting levels.
Increased strength of Respiratory Muscles
Diaphragm increases in strength.
Intercostal muscles increase in strength.

What would this allow for??
Increase in Oxygen Diffusion rate
Greater oxygen movement from capillaries to tissues.
CO2 from the cells to blood.
Regular training = Rates increase.
Increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes

Long-term exercise enhances the ability of muscle tissue to generate ATP.
Increase in:
Size of mitochondria.
Level of aerobic system enzymes.
Athletes can sustain prolonged periods of aerobic exercise as a result of long-term exercise.

Anaerobic System
Increased enzymes help control the anaerobic phase of glucose breakdown.
Increased use of fats as an energy source
Fat - low intensity exercise.
Fat combustion - powers almost all exercise at approximately 25% aerobic power.
Fat oxidation increases, as glycogen stores deplete.
Trained athlete - burns more fat as a fuel than a non-trained athlete.
Short Term Effects
Cardiovascular System
Anticipatroy Rise
Prepares the body for exercise
Gets the blood flowing to the working muscles
Sense organs sense that activity is about to begin
Certain hormones increase
Heart rate is steady during exercise
Starts to fall (drop in hormone levels)
Heart rate returns to resting when exercise finishes
This helps the body recover and to flushout any unwanted toxins (Lactic acid) in the muscle which causes fatigue
The fitter you are, the quicker your heart rate drops to resting
Respiratory System
Increase in Tidal Volume
Volume of air breathed in or expired per breath
Increases during exercise
Helps get the required oxygen into the muscles
Approx 500ml in an healthy individual
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Maximal volume inspired in addition to the tidal volume
Decreases during exercise
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Maximum volume expired
Additional to the tidal volume
Decreases slightly during exercise
Increase in Residual Volume
Amount of air left in the lungs after maximal expiration
Always some air left to prevent the lungs from collapsing
Total lung capacity (TLC)
Vital capacity + Residual volume
Slightly decreases during exercise
Increase in Vital Capacity (VC)
Maximum amount of air that you can exhale after taking the deepest breath you can
Can be up to 10 times more than you can normally exhale
Breathing rate
Increases as exercise increases
Becomes heavier
Helps with the delivery of oxygen
Reduces fatigue
Aerobic Adaptations - more energy available
Swimming and running can enlarge slow twitch muscle fibres
Greater potential for energy production
Vascular Shunt Mechanism
Distribution of blood around the body
Redistributes blood to areas of the body that needs the most amount
Less blood is needed within the digestive system when exercising
Therefore more oxygen can get to working muscles
This will mean we will not tire when performing
Blood vessels vasoconstrict (get smaller) around the areas of the body that do not need as much blood flow
Blood vessels vasodilate (get bigger) around the areas of the body that need more blood flow e.g. the muscles when exercising
Increase in Cardiac Output
Cardiac output = amount of blood pumped in 1 minute.
When playing sport, Cardiac Output will increase as a result of heart rate increasing.
Increased heart rate means your body can work at a high intensity.
Maximum Cardiac Output decreases with age - due to a decrease in maximum heart rate.
Cardiac Output increases around 5-7 times to make sure the working muscles get the required oxygen.

Do you know how to work out maximum heart rate? What is yours?
Increased Stroke Volume
Stroke Volume = Amount of blood pumped in one contraction.
At rest, stroke volume is higher after a CV endurance training programme.
Therefore the Heart can pump more blood per minute.

If the heart is stronger, how will this benefit the athlete??
Increased rate of removal of lactc acid
Can help prevent injury/recover quicker
Decreased chance of getting heart problems
Increase in lung volume
increase in alveoli
More air can get into the lungs
More oxygen then available for the wokring muscles
Decreased chance of getting lung disease
Increase in tidal volume
Increase in minute volume
amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 minute
First of all, oxygen intake is increased as soon as you start exercising
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