Transcript of AP Biology Learning Objectives Presentation
Water availability affects cells in many ways, the cells can respond by limiting how much water leaves through excretion. They can also limit how much water enters due to the selective permeability of the membrane. Aquaporins and other channel proteins help to regulate water uptake. Cell activities are affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Organism activities are affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy. Essential Knowledge 2.D.1 Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system's environment. Enduring Understanding 2 D Brianna Douglas Learning Objectives Symbiosis maintains how each species interacts with one another. Some symbiotic relationships are beneficial to both members while others are detrimental to one and beneficial to another. These relationships help to maintain a balance in biomes across the world. Essential Knowledge 2.D.2 Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments Essential Knowledge 2.D.3 Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis. Essential Knowledge 2.D.4 Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis. The stability of populations, communities and ecosystems is affected by interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity allows for animals to compete and become successful in more than one way. It also allows for life to continue if a species becomes extinct. Continuity of homeostatic mechanisms reflects common ancestry, while changes may occur in response to different environmental conditions. Sympatric speciation occurs when a species evolves from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic location. Organisms have various mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and eliminating wastes. Digestive processes are greatly aided by food vacuoles, they make digestion and waste removal very efficient. Homeostatic control systems in species of microbes, plants and animals support common ancestry Circulatory systems display a possible common ancestor, due to the fact that they all exhibit a similar function. Disruptions at the molecular and cellular levels affect the health of the organism. Dehydration can cause major bodily malfunctions. The cells need water to function properly and without water they are as good as dead. Disruptions to ecosystems impact the dynamic homeostasis or balance of the ecosystem. Natural disasters can cause many ecological problems. A large portion of a species may be wiped out, which affects other species in that biome. Plants, invertebrates and vertebrates have multiple, nonspecific immune responses. Mammals use specific immune responses triggered by natural or artificial agents that disrupt dynamic homeostasis. Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses. Plant defenses against pathogens include molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, which localizes the effects. Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and acquired defense mechanisms against pathogens. 1. The mammalian immune system includes two types of specific responses: cell mediated and humoral. 2. In the cell-mediated response, cytotoxic T cells, a type of lymphocytic white blood cell, “target” intracellular pathogens when antigens are displayed on the outside of the cells. 3. In the humoral response, B cells, a type of lymphocytic white blood cell, produce antibodies against specific antigens. 4. Antigens are recognized by antibodies to the antigen. 5. Antibodies are proteins produced by B cells, and each antibody is specific to a particular antigen. 6. A second exposure to an antigen results in a more rapid and enhanced immune response. Works CitedFull transcript
College Board. "Curriculum Framework." N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.
Holtzclaw, Fred W., and Theresa Knapp Holtzclaw. Pearson Education AP Test Prep Series. San Francisco, CA: Pearson, 2013. Print.