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The Trans-Alaskan Pipeline

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Cory Holtshouser

on 30 October 2014

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Transcript of The Trans-Alaskan Pipeline

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline: Purpose, Concerns, and Engineering Feats
Reasons for Trans-Alaska Pipeline
Oil crisis of 1973
Worldwide growing demand for crude oil

Station 5 releases pressure
Benefits and Concerns
Maintenance
Permafrost
Arctic Circle
Ground frozen for 2+ years
75% of pipeline over permafrost
Soil deposition
Erosion
Solution: Above ground pipeline
Reliability of Pipeline
Efficiency
Environmental Safety
Caused by wax buildup on walls or water freezing on walls of pipeline
Rusting of pipeline
Clean blockages and buildups of wax and ice
Clean calcium and rust off
Laminar flow causes accumulation of wax and ice
Throughput
Turbulence
Wax Accumulation and Ice Dams
500,000 barrels of oil per day
Boosts economy
Limits environmental impact
Credits
Formatting: Cory Holtshouser
Picture contributions: All group members
Editor: Carly Houdek
Presenter: Sarah Thorwall
Script, adapted from paper: Brandon Wallace
Group P: Cory Holtshouser, Carly Houdek, Sarah Thorwall, Brandon Wallace
October 30, 2014

Trans-Alaskan Pipeline
References
1. Carrington, William J., The Alaskan Labor Market during the Pipeline Era. Journal of Political Economy, 1996. 104(1) : p. 186-218.
2. Charles W. Cabot. Business and Market Developments: A Marine Supplement to the Trans Alaskan Pipeline. 1974. p. 343-353.
3. Banet, Arthur C. Jr. Oil and Gas Development on Alaska’s North Slope: Past Results and Future Prospects. 1991. p. 1-6.
4. Alyeska Pipeline Facts. 2011; Available from: http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/TAPS/PipelineFacts; Accessed October 11, 2014.
5. Trans Alaska Pipeline System Owners. Environmental Report for Trans Alaska Pipeline System Right-of Way Renewal. 2001. Section 1: Purpose of and Need for the Action.
6. Alyeska Pipeline service company; Available from: http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/TAPS/PipelineOperations/LowFlowOperations; Accessed October 13, 2014.
7. Paraffin / Wax and and Waxy Crude Oil; Available from: http://tigger.uic.edu/~mansoori/Wax.and.Waxy.Crude_html; Accessed October 13, 2014.
8. Tiratsoo, J.N.H (1999) Pipeline Pigging Technology. Second Edition. Pages 3-13. Gulf Publishing Company.
9. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C., Harriott, P. (2005) Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering. Seventh Edition. Pages 52-65. McGraw-Hill.
10. What is Permafrost?. 2014. Available from: http://ipa.arcticportal.org/resources/what-is-permafrost.html; Accessed October 15, 2014.
11. Honegger, D. G., Nyman, D. J., Johnson, E. R., Cluff, L. S., and Sorensen, S. P., Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Performance in the 2002 Denali Fault, Alaska, Earthquake. Earthquake Spectra, 2004. 20(3): p. 707-738.
12. Brew, D. A. Environmental Impact Analysis: The Example of the Proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline. United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey. 1974. p. 1-16.
13. Permafrost Monitoring. Available from: http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/assets/uploads/pagestructure/NewsCenter_MediaResources_FactSheets_Entries/634641343481601549_APSC_FactSheet_pg1_merged.pdf; Accessed October 14, 2014.
14. Cameron, R. D. and Whitten, K. R. 1980. Influence of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline corridor on the local distribution of caribou. In: Reimers, E., Caare, E. and Skjenneberg, S. (eds.). Proceedings. Second International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium. Trondheim, Norway:Direktoratet For Vilt Og Ferskvannfisk. 475-484.

Effect on Wildlife
Major Effects
Pumping
Image Sources
Problems with Thawing Permafrost
Earthquakes
The Importance of Maintenance
Pipeline Maintenance Problems
Pigging
Requires Turbulent Flow
Stations 1,3,4 and 9 pump oil
Financial burden lessened
Environmentally friendly?
Wildlife
Heat Transfer
Nature
Permafrost
Earthquakes
Wildlife
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