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pharmacology

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by

Diane Morris

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of pharmacology

Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics
vs.
Pharmacodynamics
TCC EMS PROGRAM
drugs vs. medications
Chemical Name
Generic Name
Official Name (+USP)
Brand Name
Apps for paramedics
Drug Profiles Consist Of:
names
classifications
mechanisms of action
indications
contraindications
dosage
how supplied
special considerations
Know your drugs...
Don't just give a medication because you have a standing order...
6 Rights of Medication Administration
Right patient
Right medication
Right dose
Right time
Right route
Right documentation
Although you may be treating
two patients... Remember you
must treat with medication if
the benefits outweigh
the risks.
pregnancy and medication
Metabolic Rates
Adults
Kids
Newborns
Know the difference between these terms:
Passive transport
Diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Diane's Medicine Cabinets
How to Read a Medication Label
Absorption
enteric coating
ionized medications
acidity
loading dose
maintenance infusion
bioavailability
DISTRIBUTION
When a medication binds with protein it cannot pass in to cells easily.
The pH of the blood may also affect a drug's ability to bind with protein.
Biotransformation
First pass effect...........
Elimination
Urine (pH)
Expired air
Bile
Sweat
Saliva
Breast milk
Feces
Drug Routes
Percutaneous
Enteral
Pulmonary
Parenteral
PERCUTANEOUS
absorbed through skin
absorbed through mucous membrane
Enteral Routes
Oral (PO)
Orogastric tube (OG)
Nasogastric tube (NG)
Rectal (PR)
Buccal
Pulmonary Routes
Endotracheal tube (ET)
Nebulized
Parenteral Routes
Intravenous (IV)
Intraosseus (IO)
Subcutaneous (SL)
Intradermal
Drug Forms
Powders
Tablets
Suppositories
Capsules
Solutions
Pharmacodynamics
Actions of Drugs
Binding to a receptor
Changing physical properties
Chemically combining with other substances
Altering a metabolic pathway
Drugs that bind to a receptor site:
receptors
affinity
efficacy (strength of response)
either stimulate or inhibit response
down-regulation: decrease in receptors
up-regulation: increase in receptors
agonists
antagonists
agonist-antagonists
Agonists vs. Antagonists
Drugs that change physical properties

Drugs that act by chemically combining (antacids)

Drugs that alter a normal metabolic pathway (cancer and antiviral)
Adverse Reactions
side effects
allergic reactions
idiosyncrasy (unique to patient)
tolerance
cross tolerance (opiates)
cumulative effect
dependance
drug interaction
drug antagonism
summation (1+1=2)
synergism (1+1=3)
potentiation (morphine + phenergan = alot of morphine)
interference
Drug Response Relationship
onset of action
duration of action
termination of action
therapeutic index (margin of safety)
half-life
Tinctures (alcohol)
Suspensions
Emulsions (oily)
Spirits (lots of alcohol)
Elixir (more alcohol)
Syrups (sugary)
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
acetylcholine (ACh)
norepinephrine
cholinergic
adrenergic
stimulation of sweat glands
constriction of blood vessels in skin
increased blood flow to skeletal musles
increased heart rate
increased force of heart contractions
bronchodilation
stimulation of energy production
increased blood glucose release
alpha-1:
vasoconstriction
alpha-2:
inhibits release of more NE
beta-1:
increased heart rate
increased conductivity
increased automaticity
beta-2:
bronchodilation
Dilation of arterioles
Inhibition of labor
dopaminergic
DRUGS THAT STIMULATE THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM:
called sympathomimetics
catecholamines
norepinephrine
epinephrine
dopamine
MEDICATIONS THAT INHIBIT THE SNS
CALLED SYMPATHOLYTICS
receptor site selective
"non-competetive, long-acting"
"competetive, short-acting"
beta blockers
LOL
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
pupillary constriction
secretion by digestive glands
reduced heart rate
reduced contractile force
bronchoconstriction
digestive tract activity
Acetylcholine
acetylcholinesterase
nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
cholinergics
parsympathomimetics
Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
Gastric motility
Emesis
organophosphates
VX
Sarin gas
Atropine
pralidoxime
ANTICHOLINERGICS
muscarinic cholinergic antagonists
block without stimulating
Atropine
Atrovent
nicotinic cholinergic antagonists
NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS
depolarizing- succinylcholine
nondepolarizing- most others
NICOTINE
ganglia of sympathetic and parasympathetc
salivation
peristalsis
gastric acid
release of epinephrine
norepinephrine
suppresses appetite
hot as hell
blind as a bat
dry as a bone
red as a beet
mad as a hatter
Full transcript