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TOK Presentation Indigenous Knowledge Systems

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Justus Hildebrandt

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of TOK Presentation Indigenous Knowledge Systems

AOK: Indigenous knowledge systems
TOK Presentation
Real life situation:
Reason
Development #2
Ethics
Development #1
Intuition
Development #3
What should come first: the interests of a nation’s industry and business, or the rights of indigenous people and their knowledge systems?
KNOWLEDGE QUESTION:
AOK/WOK to explore the KQ:
By: Gabriel Heinze
and
Justus Hildebrandt
Awá, a tribe of just 355 people
100 have never made outer contact
Near genocide as ranchers manhunt the tribe to clear land
Ethics
Reason
Intuition
Ethics:
Reason
Intuition:
Is it ethical to demolish an indigenous tribe in order to extract materials?
Does our intuition tell us it is morally correct to demolish an indigenous tribe in order to benefit from the materials extracted?
Claim:
it is unethical to destroy an indigenous tribe in order to extract materials.

Counterclaim:
it is not unethical to destroy an indigenous tribe in order to extract materials.
It is unethical to destroy an indigenous tribe in order to extract materials.
It is not unethical to destroy an indigenous tribe in order to extract materials.
The industry needs the materials
Supply and demand
What is ethics?
"Approximately 500 years ago there were an estimated ten million indigenous people living in the Amazonian Rainforest. Today there are estimated to be less than 200,000"
Wal-mart, Ikea, Toyota disregard deforestation regulations
A tree is not worth a persons life
Human life always outweighs tangible products
Conclusion:
Subjective whether the extraction is ethical or not
Ethics cannot be used to answer the KI, however it highlights the uncertainty connected to the extraction of materials that leads to harm for indigenous tribes.
Many different views and approaches to view this issue.
Alternatives and agreements should be considered by both sides
Is the satisfaction of supply and demand more important than the preservation of indigenous tribes?
Claim:

Reason guides us to satisfy supply and demand in the 21st century culture
Counterclaim:
Indigenous tribes do not act upon supply and demand therefore they shouldn't suffer from it.
Reason guides us to satisfy supply and demand in the 21st century culture
Toyota
Ikea
Wal-mart
Indigenous tribes do not act upon supply and demand of modern industry therefore they shouldn't suffer from it.
Depend upon the knowledge systems and culture
Despite their considered primitiveness, Indigenous tribes have a harmonious relationship with their living environment
Reasoning guides us to respect another people's basic human rights
Indigenous tribes depend on the materials in indirect relations where trees pose an important part for the ecosystem and provision of food
Another way to look at this issue with reasoning is that the Indigenous Knowledge System differs that of the modern world
No economic demands to satisfy
No National Debts or bound liabilities
No social security problems
Live "with" Nature not "from" Nature
Meaning they give back to the earth who provided their material for food and shelter

The limit of economics also has to be considered, isn't the prime interest to satisfy every individual?
If economical stagnation or concepts of economy are not present in IKS should they suffer from our own demands?
Responsibility reaches further out than just the corporations and contracted miners/loggers/pistoleros
The responsibility of the IKS destruction points back to modern society... us.
Conclusion:
Reason guides us to create a rational view on the situation taking in various arguments to weigh up a solution
Reason is a tool to help consider every party's demands i.e. corporations, markets, gov., and IKS
As a result, the main KQ could be answered using reasoning.
But, reasoning can be used on each party's side being subject to a knower's personal experiences and preferences
Reasoning can also be hence seen as a tool for supporting opinion a knower may consider correct and another as incorrect
However, after looking at the claim and counterclaim a reasoned solution would support the counterclaim
where a Knowledge System is valuable for modern society
Such as considering responsibility for the preservation of the surroundings
and absence of economical influences making these knowledge systems prosper and be maintained with limited resources
On the other hand consumer good supply could be affected as well as a government's progress due to halting workers for an IKS's safety
Claim:
Our intuition guides to the decision that the extraction is necessary for every day needs.
Counterclaim:
Our intuition tells us killing indigenous cultures for our own good is bad.
Our intuition guides to the decision that the extraction is necessary for every day needs.
Furniture
Cars
Paper
Necessary for "normal" life
Our intuition tells us killing indigenous cultures for our own good is bad.
Brazilian law requires that the Awa land be protected for the indians
Conclusion:
Intuition differs from person to person therefore this WOK cannot be used in order to answer the KQ.

Many limiting WOK that affect intuition which makes it impossible to formulate a definite answer.


Conclusion
Hence having discussed the WOK in different Developments within this presentation,

it can be concluded that the rights of an indigenous tribe should be respected more than the industry's needs after weighing up the following arguments.

As tribes are humans they have the right for just treatment towards their culture and religion
Industry needs may be set second considering the need for more CSR
Indigenous knowledge should be admired
due to attitudes and practices in conservation of nature
Real world
TOK world
Other real life situations
Kayapo tribe in the amazon
Practices active resistance towards miners, ranchers, and loggers
Area lacks proper governance.
Hence, self protection required in order to survive
Other real life situations
Destroying the Native American Cultures
Other real life situations
The Yanomamo
"Horticulturalists" only hunt and grow what they need
Hence, no reaction to market opportunities but survival needs
Grow "wild" gardens that require almost no care
HOW DOES THIS KQ RELATE TO OUR REAL LIFE SITUATION?
Other possible ethical solutions to this problem?
Other
unpopulated
areas for extraction of raw materials?
Does the industry really need the materials
this urgently?
How important is supply and demand?
Corporate social responsibility that imposed many changes regarding deforestation.
Walmart: "As we’ve continued to lead from the front, three core focus areas – sustainability, opportunity and local communities – have emerged"
Supply and demand is a theory.
Economics should not be fully centered around supply and demand. Corporate social responsibility

If the indigenous tribes don't want to suffer they should consider an agreement so that the 21st century culture does not suffer from not being able to extract their resources.
Reason should guide them to find a solution to the problem that is balanced and equal for both parties.
Possibly indigenous tribes are interested in satisfying supply and demand as well but with different interpretations
What is normal?
Why should other "normal" lives suffer from the 21st century culture "normal" life?
If the indigenous tribes can survive without extracting the good in such a destructive manner, so can the 21st century culture.
Intuition may guide us to adapt our lifestyle in order to preserve indigenous tribes.
Natural sciences: survival of the fittest.
Intuition may be altered due to limiting factors explored through other WOK such as
memory
or
emotion
.
Reason gives us arguments to support the need for extraction of Raw Materials cheaply at an IKS's cost

Why?

The sheer demand of the industry needs to be met in order to keep the global economy running

Additionally companies' Unique Selling Points include selling products cheaply for the masses
This requires the need to find the cheapest resources in order to remain profitable
Hence, reasoning could support the actions for resource extraction in the Amazon as a need for satisfying today's living standards and needs
What would the consequences be if resources were excavated in other regions?
Some consumer goods not available
Would drive down productivity rate of developing countries (green energy change?)
Full transcript