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Unit06 Memory APSS111_1A07

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Kevin Chan

on 9 October 2017

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Transcript of Unit06 Memory APSS111_1A07

Unit06 Memory
Unit Overview
Key processes in memory
Encoding & attention
Level of processing & effective encoding
Three-Box Model of Memory
Baddeley (1986) Model of Working Memory
Types of Long-Term Memory
Models of Long-Term Memory
Forgetting

Major views about how memory operates
Effortless
Effortful
Static
Dynamic
Basic Questions about Human Memory
How do we get information get into memory (Encoding)?
How do we maintain information in memory (Storage)?
How do we pull information out of memory (Retrieval)?
Down the Memory Lane:
Key Processes in Memory
Encoding
Registering information
Storage
Maintaining information
Retrieval
Recalling information
Models of Memory
Information-Processing Model
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) model
Levels-of-Processing Model
Information - Processing Model
Similar to the way a computer processes memory—in a series of three stages
Input => Storage => Output
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model
Memory processes take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
e.g. Network of thoughts about happiness
Level of Processing Model
Information is processed from "shallow" to "deep" (Craik & Lockhart, 1972)
Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes
Encoding levels:
Structural: physical structure (e.g. B, b,
B
,
B /
); shallow
Phonemic : acoustic (e.g. Boot = B + oot / Teoi4); intermediate
Semantic : meaning (e.g. Boot = Footwear for keeping warm in winter / ); deep
Three-Stage Processes Model of Memory
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory (STM)
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Baddeley Model of Working Memory (1986)
Sensory Memory
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Types of Long Term Memory
Named by George Sperling from his experiment in 1960 on visual sensory store
Capacity: everything that can be seen at one time
Duration: Lasts for 250 milliseconds (¼ second) after an image is presented
Masking: information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information
Eidetic imagery / Photographic Memory: Rare ability to access a visual memory for thirty seconds or more
Iconic Memory
Photographic Memory in Action
Link: 'https://youtu.be/Z3lgffbduV8'
Auditory sensory memory that we store temporarily
Capacity: limited to what can be heard at any one moment; smaller than the capacity of iconic memory
Duration: lasts longer than iconic at around 2-4 seconds
Echoic Memory
Echoic Memory Test
Link: 'https://youtu.be/GkZNHe49GcA'
Also known as STM or working memory
Place where information is held for brief periods of time while being used
Capacity: 7 (+/-2) pieces of information
Duration: 20-30 seconds without rehearsal
Selective attention: Ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
Attention in the Digital Age
Our attention span in the digital age has dwindled from 12 seconds to 8 seconds, even worse than a goldfish
How we interact with the external environment, such as multi-screening behavior with multiple electronic devices, could change our attention patterns
Digit Span - Testing Capacity of STM
Digit-span test:
A series of numbers is read to subjects who are then asked to recall the numbers in order
Conclusion: Capacity of STM is about seven items or pieces of information, plus or minus two items—or from five to nine bits of information.
“Magical Number” =
7
Source: Attention Span Report by Consumer Insights, Microsoft Canada 'http://advertising.microsoft.com/en/cl/31966/how-does-digital-affect-canadian-attention-spans'
Maintenance / Mental Rehearsal
Repeatedly saying bits of information to be remembered over and over in one’s head
Rehearse to maintain information in short-term memory (STMs tend to be encoded in auditory form)
E.g. Storing phone number overheard during a phone conversation
2180-9521
2180-9521
2180-9521
2180-9521
2180-9521
Information is placed to be stored more or less permanently
Elaborative rehearsal: Method for transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way
Connectedness, rather than speed or capacity, is the advantage of human memory over computer's
Implicit Memory
Procedural Memory
Declarative Memory
Semantic Memory
Episodic Memory
Also known as Non-declarative Memory
Including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses
Memories that we are not consciously aware of, but affecting our conscious behaviors
also include emotional associations, habits, and simple conditioned reflexes that may or may not be in conscious awareness
A type of implicit memory
Memories for performance of actions or skills
“Knowing how”
Action / Skills / Operations / Conditioned Response
E.g. Riding a bicycle , driving a car, stop at the red traffic light, doing CPR
Memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events
“Knowing that”
Factual information
E.g. Names of MTR stations along the East Rail Line, face, concepts, dates, medical jargons
Include semantic and episodic memories
Memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions
General facts
E.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reached Hong Kong in March 2003.1 From 11 March up to 6 June, a total of 1750 cases had been identified, and 286 people died of the disease.
Memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred
Chronological / personal
Specific to subjective & temporal experience
E.g. From the SARS experience, I learned that to survive through quarantine one needs resilience to tackle anxiety and discrimination
Reliability of our LTM: Constructive view of memory
Constructive processing: Memory retrieval process in which memories are “built,” or reconstructed, from information stored during encoding
With each retrieval, memories may be altered, revised, or influenced by newer information
Loftus & Palmer (1974) Misinformation Effect
What people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event
With reconstruction of memories often subject to suggestions in the environment, eyewitness testimony is not always reliable
Source Monitoring
Making attributions about origins of memories
Reality Monitoring
Whether memories are based on actual or imaginary events
http://www.ted.com/talks/elizabeth_loftus_the_fiction_of_memory?language=zh-tw#t-481181
Retrieval from LTM: Types, errors, & aid
Retrieval cue: Stimulus for remembering
Priming can occur where experience with information or concepts can improve later performance
Encoding specificity: Tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (e.g., surroundings or physiological state) available when the memory was first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved
State-Dependent Learning: Memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to recall while in a similar state
Aid to LTM Retrieval
Recall
Recognition
Ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material
Information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues
Retrieval failure: Recall has failed (at least temporarily)
e.g. Tip of the Tongue (TOT) phenomenon
Ability to identify previously encountered material
Matching a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact
False positive: Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize a stimulus that is not actually in memory
Serial Position Effect
Information at the
Beginning
and the
End
of a body of information more accurately remembered than the information in the middle
Primacy effect: We are more likely to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than what follows
Recency effect: We are more likely to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it
Forgetting
Hermann Ebbinghaus & his Curve of Forgetting
Hermann Ebbinghaus used himself as a subject
Retention and forgetting occur over time
Curve of forgetting: a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually
The curve turns out to be very steep in slope within the first 20 minutes, then stabilize beyond 8 hours after stimuli presentation
If we could recall things a day after, chances are we can also recall them later
Distributed practice: Spacing one’s study sessions
produces better retrieval
Massed practice: Studying a complete body of information all at once
Theories of Forgetting
Failure to process information into memory
Pseudoforgetting
Lack of attention at encoding stage
Encoding Failure
Memory trace: physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
Decay: Loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used
Disuse: Another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear
Memories recalled after many years are not explained by memory trace theory
Memory Trace / Decay Theory
Memories registered at different temporal positions interfere with each other
Interference Theory
Proactive interference
Memory retrieval problem that occurs when
older
information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information
i.e. House is full
Retroactive interference
Memory retrieval problem that occurs when
newer
information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information
i.e. New stocks are mixed up with the old ones
Unit Summary
Key processes in memory: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
Encoding & attention: We encode things that we pay selective attention to; encoding is optimized when it is deep (e.g. semantic) and involved extended association such as elaboration & visual imagery
Models of Memory: Information Processing / Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) / Level of Processing
Three-Box Model of Memory: Information arrives at sensory register, being stored at the STM for current use, and backed up at LTM for long-term retrieval
Baddeley (1986) Model of Working Memory: Rehearsal and visualized association helps optimizing working memory
Types of Long-Term Memory: Procedural / Declarative => Semantic / Episodic
Types of memory: We form explicit and declarative memory that we could voluntarily recall and implicit memory that we are usually not aware of, but could be activated upon priming
Forgetting: Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve; Types of Interference
From STM to LTM: STM as Working Memory
Baddeley (1986) Model of Working Memory
Components of working memory:
Phonological loop
Rehearsal & maintenance of sound and phonological information
e.g. mobile number: 46709394
Visuo-spatial sketchpad
Visual cache information about form and color
Episodic Buffer: Connect information across sensory modalities - visual / spatial / verbal
Central Executive: Coordinate effort in these 3 operations
Link: 'https://youtu.be/DxHXJmGH8i8'
The Forgetting Curve & Studying Effectively
Link: 'https://youtu.be/ek___tK480Y'
Full transcript