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To Kill a Mockingbird
Transcript of To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
The upper class is shown through the Finches. They are white, wealthy and educated. This makes them one of the most respected families in Maycomb. The family that represents the middle class in Maycomb is the Cunningham family. While they are poor, they are white and educated. This makes them above the lower class, like the Ewells and all the black families. They are considered filthy and not educated. They are not respected at all, until the trial where the Ewells are viewed as upper class compared to the Robinsons. This is only because of white vs. black.
Class System in TKAM
Prejudice and segregation played a huge role in the Tom Robinson trial. If Tom wasn't black, he wouldn't have been convicted. As Atticus said in his closing argument, "This case should have never come to trial. This case is a simple as black and white" (Lee 207).
Prejudice and Segregation in the Tom Robinson Trial
Prejudice affects the Robinsons because even though he was doing the right thing and helping Mayella when no one else would, he got persecuted for it. The white, red-neck jury declared him guilty because he was black, and took the Ewells's side. Although they won the trial, soon after, things were back to normal and the Ewells were again the lower class citizens.
How Does Prejudice Affect the Ewells and Robinsons?
Atticus knows that education is important, but he thinks that moral education is more important. He wasn't too upset when Mrs. Caroline told Scout she could not read with him anymore, but always takes an opportunity to teach Scout and/or Jem a life lesson just as he said in chapter 3, "Just hold your head high and keep those fists down. No matter what anyone says to you, don't let 'em get your goat. Try fighting with your head for a change... It's a good one,even if it doesn't resist learning" (Lee 76). Jem thinks that education is important, but they can be ignorant and educated, while Atticus has the view that ignorance can cause prejudice. Jem realized that some educated people can be the ones causing prejudice.
How Do Atticus and Jem View Education?
Scout loved to read and write with her father and Calpurnia, but as soon as Mrs. Caroline said, "Your father does not know how to teach" (Lee 18), she despised school. Her teacher took away something that she loved to do, that is, reading with her father.
How does Scout View Education?
The upper and middle class families go to school, such as the Finches and the Cunningham's. The lower class families, like the Ewells and the black families don't go to school, and they aren't expected to either.
What is the Connection Between the Classes of Families and Education?
The author points out that Bob Ewell isn't educated because during Atticus's cross-examination, he couldn't keep up with what he was saying and why he was saying it. This also points out that he is one of the most uneducated people in the town, and therefore one of the most prejudice and racist people in the town.
Why Does Lee Point Out That Mr. Ewell is Uneducated?
How is Maycomb Prejudice Towards Boo Radley?
The whole town always classified Boo as the creepy neighbor just because he never comes out of his house. Scout and Jem see the real Boo twice through out the book, and he saved them both times. The first time was during the fire at Mrs. Maudie's house, when he put a blanket around them. The second was when Mr. Ewell attacked them. They figured out that he was the one placing the gifts in the hole in the tree, too. Boo was a shy person, but still showed bravery and kindness. The town was wrong about him, just as they were wrong about Tom.
"Well Dill, after all he's just a negro" (Lee 203).
"White people wouldn't have anything to do with her because she lived among pigs, and negros wouldn't have anything to do with her because she was white" (Lee 195).
The Views of Education in To Kill a Mockingbird
Tom Robinson Trial
Scottsboro Boys Trial
How are the Ewells Similar to Victoria Price and Ruby Bates?
The Ewells are not educated, they are filthy, 'live off the land', are rude, and do practically whatever they want. This is just like Victoria and Ruby, as illustrated in these quotes; "He was the filthiest boy I had ever seen. His neck was dark grey, the backs of his hands were rusty, and his fingernails were black deep into the quick" (Lee 27). This quote demonstrates how Burris Ewell was disgustingly dirty and gross. Ruby and Victoria were also filthy and were pretty much homeless. As shown on page 27, Burris also did whatever he wanted. "You ain't sendin' me home, missus. I was on the verge of leavin'- I done done my time for this year" (Lee 27). Burris Ewell only went to school for the first day and did not go the rest of the year, every year. Even though it was against the law, no one said anything and let him do what he wished. This is also what Victoria and Ruby did, as they lived on a freight train, and people let them even though it is illegal.
How Does Maycomb Feel Towards its Black Residents?
Most of the residents of Maycomb feel that black redidents are beneath them. They are not highly valued and none of the white people associate with them. Even the Finches, who have Capurnia and reconize her as a mother figure, and have high moral values, do not really associate with any other black people. "but around here once you have a drop of negro blood, that makes you all black" (Lee 164). According to Jem, Mr. Dolphus Raymond had to ship his children up north because "they don't belong anywhere. Colored folks won't have 'em because they're half white; white folks won't have 'em cause they're colored, so they're just in-betweens, don't belong anywhere" (Lee 163).
Describe the Friction the Trial Brings Before it Even Starts
Some of Atticus's friends came by and harassed him and almost beat him up for defending a black person. Also, in Scout's classroom, some of her classmates were making fun of her because "Scout Finch's daddy defended niggers" (Lee 77).
Similarities Between the Trials
Black against white
The black people got the best lawyers
The juries were all white
Got accused for something they did not do
Accused by trashy, white girls
Tom Robinson was convicted, while all but one of the Scotsboro boys was declared innocent
One person on the Scottsboro jury wanted to declare them innocent the first time, while Tom Robinson's verdict was anonymously guilty
Tom Robinson only had one trial
Victoria Price and Ruby Bates did not have a witness
Tom Robinson's judge realized that Atticus had the evidence to prove him innocent
What Happened to Tom Robinson and What Effects does it Have on Maycomb?
Tom Robinson got shot. This did not have an effect on the white population of Maycomb that believed he was guilty, because they believed that "he was dead the minute Mayella opened her mouth and screamed" (Lee 206).
"In our courts, when it's a white man's word against a black man's, the white man always wins. They're ugly, but those are the facts of life" (Lee 224).
Atticus's Closing Argument vs. MLK's Speech
Both the speeches appeal to emotion
The quote "all men are created equal" is in the speeches at least once
Thomas Jefferson and the founding fathers are referenced
Black people always have a disadvantage
Atticus is trying to get Tom to be declared innocent, while Martin Luther King Jr. is trying to end segregation
MLK is talking to all races, while Atticus is talking to a white jury
Rhetorical Devices Used in Atticus's Closing Argument
Allusion: "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we follow today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation"
Metaphors: "chains of discrimination"
Similes: "we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters"
Rhetorical Devices Used in MLK's 'I Have a Dream Speech'
Allusion: "Thomas Jeffesron once said that all men are created equal, a phrase that the Yankees and the distaff side of the executive branch in Washington are fond of hurling at us" (Lee 207).
Parallelism: "You know the truth, and the truth is: ..." (Lee 207).
End of Book Reflection
Why Did Harper Lee Write in Scout's Adult POV?
Harper Lee wrote in Scout's adult perspective because it showed how Scout grew and what she learned throughout the book. It showed how through all the hardships she was put through from her father's role in the trial, she matured. It also helped the readers understand how she reflected on the experiences and join together all of the events since she knew what happened next.
"In To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Who Tells the Story and What Impact Does It Have? - Homework Help - ENotes.com." Enotes.com. Enotes.com, n.d. Web. 12 May 2014.
What Did You Learn From TKAM?
I learned that you can change your views on other people and how you perceive them, no matter how you were raised and what you were taught. Mayella could have changed her perspective on Tom even though her family despised black people, and she could have not gotten him in trouble. I also learned from Atticus, that "ignorance causes prejudice".