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Psychological Theories: Higher
Transcript of Psychological Theories: Higher
"transitions are more stressful if they are: unpredictable, involuntary, unfamiliar, of high magnitude, or high intensity, rate of change. He believes in every transition, however undesirable, there is always the opportunity for personal growth and development." William Worden Task of mourning:
Task 1: To accept the reality of loss
Task 2: To work through The pain of grief
Task 3: To adjust to an environment in which
the deceased is missing
Task 4: To emotionally Relocate the
deceased and move on with life Loss and Life Changes Theory Psychological Theory Higher LO 3: Theories relating to life changes K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 Major life events are a source of stress. This is regardless of whether the event is positive or negative.
With a partner, try to think of the ’top 10’ most stressful life events. Major life events K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 The SRRS scale The rating scale is based on the premise that both positive and negative events can increase stress levels and make one more susceptible to illness and mental health problems (Holmes & Rahe, 1967). K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 A: because they place new demands on the individual, who has to make a significant amount of adjustment! Q: Why are both positive and negative life events stressful? K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 Holmes and Rahe made up a list of 43 potentially stressful events
They then asked a large sample (400 people) to rate how stressful they thought each event would be
’Death of a spouse’ was given a top rating of 100, as most people agreed that this was the most stressful
The other events were then ranked in relation to this number and each given a value – a ’Life Change Unit’ (LCU) How the SRRS was created
(by Holmes and Rahe, 1967) K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 Major>300 Taking the test K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 Rahe et al (1970) used the SRRS with American sailors – found a positive correlation of +0.118
Stone et al (1987) had married couples fill in daily checklists of events for 3 months. If undesirable events increased, illness often occurred
Michael & Ben-Zur (2007) found that recently widowed participants scored lower on life satisfaction compared to those who were recently divorced Studies into life changes and stress K Christopher La Retraite School 19/11/2012 A life change is...
Both positive and negative life changes are stressful because...
The SRRS stands for...and was invented by...in..
The most stressful life event is... and has a LCU rating of ...
There are ... items in the SRRS
A major risk of stress related illness comes at a total score of ...
Studies have been done with different groups of people such as ..., ..., and... . Recap Key features:
7 stage model of transition for describing how people react to and cope with loss and change
It is normal for individuals to experience a range of feelings, and changes in self esteem as they go through transition.
This is not a smorrth process, people can become stuck at early stages of transition, eg, at the depression stage
People may not full;y complete all stages and may go back to an earlier stage and start the process all over again. The 7 stages:
Immobilisation- Shock, disbelief
Minimisation-where the individual plays down what has happened
Depression- saddness, apathy
Acceptance of reality/ letting go where slef esteem is at the lowest
Testing- where people try out new ideas and ways of behaving
Searching for meaning- where people try to understand the need for change and what it means for them
Internalistion-where the individual understands and accepts the change http://www.bbc.co.uk/filmnetwork/films/p00lvbqt Determinants of grief
Searching and pining