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Second-Wave Civilizations:

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James Gorman

on 20 September 2015

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Transcript of Second-Wave Civilizations:

Second-Wave Civilizations:
500 BCE to 500 CE


Five "Empires" from 500 BCE to 500 CE
Greco-Roman Religion and Christian Persecution
1. Adopted gods and myths (translatability)
2.
Pietas
(ritual)
Religions in Second Wave Civilizations
Chinese and Indian Empires
Nero: Fire and Persecutions
Tacitus (c.56-c.120 CE)--politician & historian
Governor Pliny to Emperor Trajan
-Emperor Trajan (r.98-117 CE)
-Pliny (61-112), Gov. of Bithynia
Martyrdom of Polycarp
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna (c.69-c.155 CCE)
China: Confucianism and Daoism
India: Hinduism and Buddhism
Africa and Axum
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Persian, Greek, and Roman Empires
Ἕλληνες
Hellenes
Greek gods: http://www.history.com/videos/greek-gods#greek-gods
Greek gods
Leo the Great & Attila the Hun
Rome 452 CE
Diocletian (r.285-305)
"Barbarous"
Latin barbarus
Greek βάρβαρος

Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas
Perpetua (181-203)
Septemius Severus (r.193-211)
Rise of Christianity
1. Atheists
2. Superstitious
Nero (r.54-68 CE)

1 3 5 7

2 4 6 8


Groups
Charges Against Christians
"Alexamenos worships his god"
Source: Rodney Stark,
"Rise of Christianity"
(1997)
Christian Growth to 360 CE
1. Diaspora Judaism
2. Evangelistic Zeal
3. Relational Religion in a Patron-Client Culture
4. Convincing Witnesses: Martyrs, Confessors, Monks, Nuns
5. Displays of Power: Miracles, Healings, Exorcisms
6. Attractive Ethics: Charity for Poor and Sick; Love of Others
7. Intellectually Coherent Worldview
8. Women and Slaves Equal (All in the Imago Dei)
9. Exclusivism Prompted Fear
10. Power (Political and Spiritual) and Wealth Accrued (most C4 CE)
11. Coercion (Theodosius and following)

Reasons for Christian Expansion
Source: O'Brien, "Atlas of World History" (OUP, 2010)
Source: O'Brien, "Atlas of World History" (OUP, 2010)
(221-206 BCE)
(206 BCE-220 CE)
1. Religion
2. Symbols
3. Rituals (a.k.a. rites)
Chart from Tim Dowley, ed. "Introduction to the History of Christianity." Revised ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2006.
Definitions for Analyzing Religions
1. Confucius (551-479 BCE)
Qin Shihuangdi (259-210 BCE)--China's First Emperor
1. Unified Warring States
China's Political and Social Systems
1. Mandate of Heaven (Emperor ruled by divine right)
Confucianism
http://video.pbs.org/video/2274910092/
Daoism
1. Laozi (c.6 BCE)
(320-550 CE)
1. Diverse and no founder
Hinduism
Hinduism
5. Dharma


1. Sidhartha Gautama (c.566-c.486 BCE)
The Buddha = "The Enlightened One"

Buddhism

Global population in 2010: 6.9 billion

Religions: Adherents and Percentage of Population*
o Christians – 2.27 billion (32.8%)
o Muslims – 1.56 billion (22.5%)
o Hindus – 933 million (13.5%)
o Buddhists – 499 million (7.2%)
o Chinese folk-religionists – 440 million (6.4%)
o Ethnoreligionists – 244 million (3.5%)
o Jews – 14 million (.2%)
o Agnostics – 660 million (9.9%)
o Atheists – 138 million (2%)
o Various others – 120 million (1.9%)

Major groups (“megablocs”) of Christians
o Roman Catholics – 1.17 billion
o Protestants – 417 million
o Independents – 378 million
o Orthodox – 277 million
o Anglicans – 87 million

*Information from World Christian Database (worldchristiandatabase.org), accessed October 3, 2013
Impact of "Axial Age" Religions Today
Source: David B. Barrett, ed., "World Christian Encyclopedia" 2nd ed (OUP, 2001)
"I teach suffering, its origins, cessation, and path. That's all I teach."
1. Political system with coercive power
2. Conquer and exploits other states or groups
3. Usually multiple cultures under 1 political system
4. No clear line between big multi-ethnic "states" and "empires"
"Empire"
Continuity and Change
1st Civs to 2nd-Wave Civs
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/114/video
http://www.history.com/videos/persias-royal-road#persias-royal-road

Darius
A crushed rebel!
Faravahar
http://www.history.com/videos/last-stand-of-the300-the-kill-zone
Parthenon: http://www.history.com/videos/deconstructing-history-the-acropolis
Image source: Chris Scarre, ed.
The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World
. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.

http://www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Morals%20and%20Law/M+L/Plato/World%20of%20Plato.htm
70 CE Jerusalem
1. Persian Empire
2. Greek Empire of Alexander the Great
3. Roman Empire
4. China (Qin and Han dynasties)
5. India (Mauryan and Gupta empires)
1. Persian Empire
1. Persian Empire
2. Greek Empire of Alexander the Great
3. Roman Empire
4. China (Qin and Han dynasties)
1. Persian Empire
2. Greek Empire of Alexander the Great
3. Roman Empire
1. Persian Empire
2. Greek Empire of Alexander the Great
1. Adopted gods and myths (translatability)
2.
Pietas
(ritual)
3. Collective/Societal (not individual)
4. Adhesion, Assimilation, & Toleration
5. Imperial Cult: Cult of the Emperor
1. Adopted gods and myths (translatability)
2.
Pietas
(ritual)
3. Collective/Societal (not individual)
4. Adhesion, Assimilation, & Toleration
1. Adopted gods and myths (translatability)
2.
Pietas
(ritual)
3. Collective/Societal (not individual)
1. Adopted gods and myths (translatability)
1. Atheists
2. Superstitious
3. Subversive and Revolutionary
4. Hate humankind and anti-social
1. Atheists
2. Superstitious
3. Subversive and Revolutionary
4. Hate humankind and anti-social
5. Immoral: Cannibalism, Incest, Infanticide
1. Atheists
2. Superstitious
3. Subversive and Revolutionary
4. Hate humankind and anti-social
5. Immoral: Cannibalism, Incest, Infanticide
6. Ignorant fools (Alexamenos)

1. Atheists
2. Superstitious
3. Subversive and Revolutionary
4. Hate humankind and anti-social
5. Immoral: Cannibalism, Incest, Infanticide
6. Ignorant fools (Alexamenos)
7. Cause disasters ("barbarian" invasions, natural, etc)

1. Unified Warring States
2. Great Wall of China
1. Unified Warring States
2. Great Wall of China
3. Burned Confucian Writings
1. Unified Warring States
2. Great Wall of China
3. Burned Confucian Writings
4. Legalism
1. Unified Warring States
2. Great Wall of China
3. Burned Confucian Writings
4. Legalism
5. Mausoleum (Tomb)
1. Mandate of Heaven (Emperor ruled by divine right)
2. Chinese Imperial Tradition (a.k.a. Cult of Heaven)
1. Mandate of Heaven (Emperor ruled by divine right)
2. Chinese Imperial Tradition (a.k.a. Cult of Heaven)
3. Social Stratification
1. Mandate of Heaven (Emperor ruled by divine right)
2. Chinese Imperial Tradition (a.k.a. Cult of Heaven)
3. Social Stratification
A. Civil Service Officials (Literati/bureaucrats)
B. Landlord Class
C. Peasants (majority)
D. Merchants
1. Confucius (551-479 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Moral Example
4. Education and Literati
5. Filial Piety
6. Patriarchalism
7. Ancestor Veneration
8. Ritualism
9. Heaven and Dao
1. Confucius (551-479 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Moral Example
1. Confucius (551-479 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Moral Example
4. Education and Literati
1. Confucius (551-479 BCE)
2. Scriptures
1. Confucius (551-479 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Moral Example
4. Education and Literati
5. Filial Piety
6. Patriarchalism
7. Ancestor Veneration
1. Laozi (c.6 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Dao
1. Laozi (c.6 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Dao
4. Wu Wei
5. Nature
6. Yin Yang
7. Deities
8. Rituals
1. Laozi (c.6 BCE)
2. Scriptures
3. Dao
4. Wu Wei
5. Nature
6. Yin Yang
1. Diverse and no founder
2. Scriptures: The Vedas
1. Diverse and no founder
2. Scriptures: The Vedas
3. Trimurti: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
4. Epics: The Mahabharata and
The Ramayana
5. Dharma
6. Atman (soul/true spiritual self)
7. Karma


5. Dharma
6. Atman (soul/true spiritual self)
7. Karma
8. Reincarnation (Samsara)
9. Moksha (Liberation)
10. Worship (Home, Temple, Pilgrimage)


5. Dharma
6. Atman (soul/true spiritual self)
7. Karma
8. Reincarnation (Samsara)
9. Moksha (Liberation)

1. Sidhartha Gautama (c.566-c.486 BCE)
The Buddha = "The Enlightened One"
2. Four Noble Truths
3. Eightfold Path


1. Sidhartha Gautama (c.566-c.486 BCE)
The Buddha = "The Enlightened One"
2. Four Noble Truths
3. Eightfold Path
4. Similar to Hinduism
5. Different from Hinduism
1. Sidhartha Gautama (c.566-c.486 BCE)
The Buddha = "The Enlightened One"
2. Four Noble Truths
3. Eightfold Path
4. Similar to Hinduism
5. Different from Hinduism
6. Buddhist Scriptures
7. Two Major Groups: Theravada and
Mahayana
8. Worship
9. Buddhas and Stupas

1. Sidhartha Gautama (c.566-c.486 BCE)
The Buddha = "The Enlightened One"
2. Four Noble Truths
3. Eightfold Path
4. Similar to Hinduism
5. Different from Hinduism
6. Buddhist Scriptures
7. Two Major Groups: Theravada and
Mahayana

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