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Fake or Fact? - Jeannette Keton_2.1.18

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Transcript of Fake or Fact? - Jeannette Keton_2.1.18

FAKE
FACT?
OR
Jeannette S. Keton
PHOTO BY PAUL CLARKE, 2014
Here’s how Gold Standard news is defined ... It is fact-based information that is verified and shared by an ethical, independent organization that holds itself accountable for the information’s accuracy. It includes multiple viewpoints.
FAKE OR FACT
Blurring the Lines
FAKE OR FACT
Who Cares?
FAKE OR FACT
The Perfect Playground
Jeannette S. Keton
FACT?
OR
FAKE
Jeannette S. Keton - Palladin Inc.
The Afternoon That the US Supreme Court Upheld Part of the Travel Ban...
PLACEMENT
Lead Story
HEADLINE
Supreme Court to Review Trump Travel Ban, Says It Can Be Partially Enforced
WALL STREET JOURNAL
PLACEMENT
Lead Story
HEADLINE
Supreme Court Allows Limited Version of Trump’s Travel Ban to Take Effect
THE WASHINGTON POST
PLACEMENT
Lead Story
HEADLINE
Supreme Court Travel Ban Ruling: What It Means
USA TODAY
SUB HEADLINE
Supreme Court Reinstates Trump’s Travel Ban, but Only for Some Immigrants
PLACEMENT
Third Story
HEADLINE
Top Court Revives Part of Trump Travel Ban, Will Hear Appeal
BLOOMBERG
PLACEMENT
Lead Story
HEADLINE
Supreme Court Reinstates Much of Trump’s Travel Ban, Will Hear Case in Fall
MSNBC
PLACEMENT
Second Story
HEADLINE
“Clear Victory” Trump Crows as High Court Restores Part of Travel Ban
FOX NEWS


PLACEMENT
Lead Story
HEADLINE
Travel Ban Goes to Supreme Court
THE NEW YORK TIMES
SUB HEADLINE
Curbs on Entry From Six Countries Can Take Partial Effect
PLACEMENT
Seventh Story
HEADLINE
Trump Gets Partial Win on Travel Ban
CNN
PLACEMENT
Lead Story
HEADLINE
Supremes Lift Lower Court’s Block of Trump Travel Ban
BREITBART
AGREE OR DISAGREE?
I think I can trust most news most of the time.
38%
AGREE
I think I can trust most of the news I consume most of the time.
53%
AGREE
YOUR RESULTS
46%
AGREE
73%
AGREE
https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/usa-today-2/
Conspiracy Theorists Care
Create general distrust or confusion over information sources by blurring the lines between fact and fiction
WHO ELSE CARES ABOUT FAKE NEWS?
Businesses
Russian objectives
Popularize Russian policy agendas within foreign populations
Undermine citizen confidence in democratic governance
1.
2.
Foment and exacerbate divisive political fractures
3.
Erode trust between citizens and elected officials and democratic institutions
5.
4.
The Democratization of Information
Feelings Over Facts
The Death of Expertise
Privacy and Information
Technology
FAKE OR FACT
Risky Business
Time to get tough on fake information?
FAKE OR FACT
Real Tools
To Determine Real News
By www.Pixel.la Free Stock Photos
Algorithms
Public, Politicians, Social Media All Receive Share of Responsibility for Stopping Spread of Fake News
MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC
GOVT., POLITICIANS AND ELECTED OFFICIALS
A GREAT DEAL OF RESPONSIBILITY
A FAIR AMOUNT
NOT
MUCH
43%
45%
42%
31%
SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AND
SEARCH ENGINES
25%
29%
24%
26%
24%
Source: Pew Research Center
62%
62%
46%
23%
12%
15%
19%
YOUR ANSWER
38%
8%
YOUR ANSWER
YOUR ANSWER
Americans thought all of these groups: social media and search engines, the government and the general public should take roughly equal responsibility for stopping the spread of made up news. (45% government, politicians and elected officials; 43% public; 42 percent industry)
What Are Social Media, Search Engines and Government Doing to Stop the Spread of Fake News?
The Perfect Playground for Misinformation and Manipulation
Expose Yourself to Different Thoughts and Ideas
Compare coverage of the same story in both papers. How prominently is the story placed within the newspaper? Are the first sentences, what journalists call the “lead” similar or dramatically different? Do this for a while, and you will begin to be able to recognize bias – theirs and your own.
unroll.me
digitalprivacyalliance.org

95%
Accuracy
SKIN COLOR
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
After 68 Facebook “Likes,” the Algorithm Could Predict:
88%
Accuracy
POLITICAL AFFILIATION (D OR R)
85%
Accuracy
He notes that most people are obliviousness to online political advertising and its lack of overall transparency. Political “adverts” like the dark posts we talked about earlier can be used “in unethical ways – to point voters to fake news sites, for instance, or to keep people away from the polls and to allow campaigns to say completely different, possibly conflicting messages to different groups or individuals.
unroll.me
IMPARTIAL
Non-biased, fair, just. 
The Perfect Playground for Misinformation and Manipulation
First Tool:  Awareness
SIR TIMOTHY BERNERS-LEE
INVENTOR OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB
PHOTO BY PAUL CLARKE, 2014
The News Spectrum
BIAS
A tendency, inclination, feeling or opinion about someone or something.
PROPERTY OF
Should we care?
Fake or Fact Spectrum of News and Opinion
Fake News
*The Center for News Literacy at the University of Stony Brook in New York
IMVAIN: EVALUATING THE VALIDITY OF SOURCES*
Named
sources over anonymous sources.
Independent
sources over self-interested sources.
Multiple
sources over a single source.
Sources who provide
verifiable
information over those who assert.
Authoritative and/or informed
sources over sources who are uninformed or lack authoritative background.
NEWS
ADVERTISING
OPINION
Fake or Fact Spectrum of News and Opinion
Gold Standard
News and Analysis
Fake News
Gold Standard News and Analysis Best Practices
Seek
the Facts and Verify Them
S
SEEK THE FACTS AND REPORT THEM
What claims are made in the story?
What evidence has been provided to back up those claims?
Who or what are the sources of the evidence?
Are multiple sources provided?
Are the sources relevant, primary sources?
*The Center for News Literacy at the University of Stony Brook in New York
IMVAIN: EVALUATING THE VALIDITY OF SOURCES*
Named sources over anonymous sources.
Independent sources over self-interested sources.
Multiple sources over a single source.
Sources who provide verifiable information over those who assert.
Authoritative and/or informed sources over sources who are uninformed or lack authoritative background.
Does the news organization or the reporter have a vested interest in the story? Are they biased in some fashion?
Does the story provide multiple perspectives?
Does the news organization clearly distinguish between news, opinion and advertising?
Is the reporter credentialed?
What is the news organization and who owns it?
ACT INDEPENDENTLY
M
A
R
DoD photo by Sgt. Aaron Hostutler, U.S. Marine Corps.
MINIMIZE HARM
How long has the information provider been in existence?
What is its reputation?
Are corrections regularly provided?
Does the information provider take ownership for the content?
BE ACCOUNTABLE AND TRANSPARENT
T
Facts included in the story are corroborated by trustworthy, credible, sources.
Reflect
Multiple
Perspectives
Diverse perspectives result in stories that are more complete and impartial.
Be
Accountable
The journalist and the news organization take responsibility for the information’s accuracy.
Report
Ethically
The news organization has editorial policies that guide journalists’ actions as they report.
Be
Totally

Independent
The journalist and the news organization have no “dog in the hunt”; they simply want to relay the story.
Gold Standard Opinion/Commentary
Gold Standard Opinion/Commentary Best Practices
Based on verifiable facts.
Clear, logical, well-thought out arguments.
No Sensationalism
Fact-Based
Rational
Matter-of-fact language.
Clearly Labeled
Clearly identified as opinion, commentary, or point-of-view.
Advocacy
Sloppy Journalism
Indicators of Biased/Slanted News
Greater
emphasis
on one argument or perspective.
Prejudicial language
– frequently reflected in adjective use.
The
wording
of the first sentence.
Story
placement/visibility
.
Lack
of context.
Information that is
NOT included
.
DoD photo by Sgt. Aaron Hostutler, U.S. Marine Corps.
News as we said earlier, is timely, fact-based Information of public interest that that is verified and shared by an independent organization that holds itself accountable for the information’s accuracy. News of this type is complete – critical information is not omitted – and when multiple perspectives about the topic of the article exists, they are included. Reporters don’t shape the story based on their own biases.
Photo by: Surachit at the Wikipedia Project
O
penness
Imagination, feelings, actions, ideas
C
onscientiousness
Competence, self-discipline, thoughtfulness, goal-driven
E
xtroversion
Sociability, assertiveness, emotional expression
A
greeableness
Cooperative, trustworthy, good-natured
N
euroticism
Tendency toward unstable emotions
OCEAN Psychographic Model
The Perfect Playground for Misinformation and Manipulation
Does the news organization or the reporter have a vested interest in the story? Are they biased in some fashion?
Does the story provide multiple perspectives?
Does the news organization clearly distinguish between news, opinion and advertising?
Is the reporter credentialed?
What is the news organization and who owns it?
ACT INDEPENDENTLY
A
T
Be
Accountable
Report
Ethically
Be
Totally
Independent
Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism
After 11 likes, the algorithm knows us better than our co-workers.
After 250 likes, it knows us better than our partners.
The rate at which democracies are approaching the tipping point is alarming for all those who understand that if media freedom is not secure, then none of the other freedoms can be guaranteed.
CHRISTOPHE DELOIRE
SECRETARY-GENERAL, REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERS


But what is entertainment to some can have serious repercussion for others – like fake news websites that encourage people to create fake news stories and share them via social media to “prank their friends.”
Here are some additional quick checks that can help you identify fake news quickly.
Google has changed its search protocol so that stories that have been proven to be hoaxes are called out at the top of the search results.
In what ways could fake news and misinformation impact my ability to do my job?
What is bias?
A particular tendency, inclination, feeling or opinion about someone or something.
For journalists, being impartial means putting the public’s need to know before everything else. It means recognizing your own biases, setting them aside– and providing a complete, accurate and impartial picture of what is occurring.

Let’s go back to the four-box and define Gold Standard News……and the other types of information in between it and fake news that are the real culprits – the real cause for confusion.
For the past several years, the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford in England has produced an annual survey on digital news consumption. This year, the Institute surveyed 70,000 people across the globe. One of the questions asked participants was whether they agreed or disagreed with the following two questions:
Journalism best practices
Digital
tools
Has fake news caused confusion about the facts surrounding real events?
Fact checking approaches
Determine if this information is
fake
...
CAST YOUR VOTE!
Google has changed its search protocol so that stories that have been proven to be hoaxes are called out at the top of the search results.
Gallup Poll Results
YES OR NO?
Do you trust the news media to report the facts fully, accurately and fairly?
41%
YES
YOUR RESULTS
54%
YES
Check about and disclaimer sections
Check the date
The headline should reflect the story’s content
(inflammatory or matter-of-fact?)
Identify the tone
Search the headline followed by "fake"
Look for misspellings or bad grammar
Watch for a sales pitch
The Perfect Playground for
Misinformation and Manipulation
FAKE NEWS IS
False, non-factual information
made to look like real news
with the intent to deceive
Quality business decisions are based on quality information
CRITICAL THINKING
Thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded and informed by evidence
1,108
Russian-sponsored YouTube channels
users; shared by millions more
11.4 million
election-related tweets
80,000
Russian Facebook posts
reached
126 million
3,000
Russian Facebook ads
viewed by
users
2,752
Russian Twitter accounts
generated
1.4 million
Who else cares about fake news? People who want to influence others. The speed and reach of the Internet, combined with new, advanced software, facilitates the ability to propagandize large numbers of people like never before.

The dictionary defines propaganda as the promotion of a particular story line to sway opinion or drive action – a morally neutral concept. By this definition, we’re all propagandists at times.
Propaganda becomes problematic when it is based on false information, or there is little or no transparency in respect to who is behind it.
I’ve followed with interest the news coverage of Russia’s intervention into our elections last year. Here’s a clip from a Senate Intelligence Committee hearing that I found particularly interesting because of the comments about fake news. (March (3/30/17) The man addressing the committee is Clinton Watts, a former U.S. Army infantry officer, ex FBI Special Agent, and former Executive Officer of the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. He is also a Senior Fellow at the Center For Cyber and Homeland Security at The George Washington University. And a fellow at the Foreign Policy Institute, a non-partisan think tank.
Brave New Digital World
Reflect
Multiple
Perspectives
M
Seek
the Facts and Verify Them
S
Gold Standard News and Analysis Best Practices
Subscribe to a conservative newspaper and one that is more liberal and read them both. Try hard copy; many home pages of newspaper websites are now tailored to users using algorithms. You can tell what a publication’s political leanings are from the editorials they publish.
And our last responsibility... to stay abreast of issues that could clean up the perfect playground – or put us more at risk.
What can we do to stop the spread of fake news and other misinformation?
Read less.
Research More.
CREDIBLE
ACCURATE
IMPARTIAL
FACT
Facts are something that can be proven, repeated, observed or substantiated through evidence.
Why do we trust the news we consume?
Fake or Fact Spectrum of News and Opinion
Gold Standard
News and Analysis
Fake News
Sloppy Journalism
Fake or Fact Spectrum of News and Opinion
Gold Standard
News and Analysis
Fake News
Gold Standard Opinion/Commentary
Sloppy Journalism
Fake or Fact Spectrum of News and Opinion
Gold Standard
News and Analysis
Fake News
Gold Standard Opinion/Commentary
Advocacy
Sloppy Journalism
Biased/ Slanted
Disinformation/Propaganda
CAST YOUR VOTE!
Determine if this information is
fake
...
No research. No sharing.
The biggest tool for combating disinformation is promoting robust debate and educating people on how to identify reputable news sources.
The Spirit of Liberty: At Home, in the World, Oct. 2017, The George W. Bush Institute, quoting the Alliance for Securing Democracy


R
YOUR RESULTS
62%
A GREAT DEAL OF CONFUSION
38%
SOME CONFUSION
0%
NOT MUCH/ NO CONFUSION
fake news websites
prank news websites
fake articles in 6 languages during 12 months
shares, reactions and comments on Facebook
News as we said earlier, is timely, fact-based Information of public interest that that is verified and shared by an independent organization that holds itself accountable for the information’s accuracy. News of this type is complete – critical information is not omitted – and when multiple perspectives about the topic of the article exists, they are included. Reporters don’t shape the story based on their own biases.
News as we said earlier, is timely, fact-based Information of public interest that that is verified and shared by an independent organization that holds itself accountable for the information’s accuracy. News of this type is complete – critical information is not omitted – and when multiple perspectives about the topic of the article exists, they are included. Reporters don’t shape the story based on their own biases.
200
30
3,000

13 million
FAKE NEWS IS
False, non-factual information
made to look like real news
with the intent to deceive
In what ways could fake news and misinformation impact Trinity?
In what ways could fake news and misinformation impact our ability to do our jobs?
Bots are:
EGGHEADS – NO PICTURE
BORING – NO BIO
REDUNDANT – REPEAT TWEETS
PROFUSE –
IMPOSSIBLE TWEET COUNT
CONFUSED – SCREEN NAME DIFFERS FROM URL
INCOHERENT – TWEETS DON’T MAKE SENSE
UNCOMMUNICATIVE – NO TWO-WAY CONVERSATION
UNPOPULAR - LOW FOLLOWER NUMBERS
78
Gold Standard
News and Analysis
News is new, factual information of public interest.
Opinions are personal or organizational views expressed about a particular news topic.
Calling something to the attention of the public through paid announcements.
Source: Stanford History Education Group, ©Sam Wineburg & Sarah McGrew, 2017.
Sloppy Journalism
?
No research. No sharing.
Subscribe to a conservative newspaper and one that is more liberal and read them both. Try hard copy; many home pages of newspaper websites are now tailored to users using algorithms. You can tell what a publication’s political leanings are from the editorials they publish.
Majority say fake news has left Americans confused about basic facts
He notes that most people are obliviousness to online political advertising and its lack of overall transparency. Political “adverts” like the dark posts we talked about earlier can be used “in unethical ways – to point voters to fake news sites, for instance, or to keep people away from the polls and to allow campaigns to say completely different, possibly conflicting messages to different groups or individuals.
Full transcript