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Atomic Structure Time Line

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Jen Lies

on 7 October 2013

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Transcript of Atomic Structure Time Line

John Dalton
Dalton's Atomic Theory
All elements are composed of submicroscopic indivisible particles called atoms.
Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element.
Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine with one another in simple whole- number ratios to form compounds.
Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged. However, atoms of one element are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction.
1852- 1908
Dalton, a teacher, performed experiments find what ratios elements appear in when they combine in chemical reactions.
What was wrong?
Dalton had a few flaws to his theory:
Atoms are not indivisible, as he thought. There are the subatomic particles of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Not all atoms of the same element are entirely uniform. There are isotopes of elements, where the number of neutrons differ.
Dalton's Model
Dalton did not know about subatomic particles, so his model was a particle that did not contain protons, neutrons, or electrons.
Atomic Structure Time Line
460 BC
384 BC
Democritus was a Greek teacher who first suggested that matter consisted of
tiny invisible particles called atoms
Democritus lacked experimental evidence to support his ideas.
1743- 1794
Aristotle came up with the idea of four basic elements- water, fire, earth, and air.
Eugene Goldstein
Proved the existence of the proton through his cathode
ray tube experiments.
James Chadwick
Proved the existence of the neutron, which paved the way for nuclear fission as well as nuclear weapons.
Max Planck
Quantum Concept was further proved with Planck
h-is known as Planck's constant in the formula E=h*v
Albert Einstein
Named quanta of energy from light, photons
Proved electrons are not always ejected from an atom shown through the photoelectric effect which also shows a problem with the wave theory of light
Louis de Broglie
Stated all matter shows wavelike motion
de Broglie's equation= λ=h/mv wavelength=Planck's constant/mass*velocity
Larger object means smaller wavelength
Werner Heisenberg
Made uncertainty principle-impossible to know the velocity and position of a particle at the same time, more accurate of one makes the less accurate for the other, more often seen with smaller objects

Isolated polonium and radium, and did extensive research on radiation. This research helped to create X-Rays for medical use.
Antoine Henri Becquerel
Becquerel, a French chemist, discovered that uranium emits invisible rays, known as
Marie Curie
He discovered radioactivity by storing uranium salts next to wrapped photographic film plates, which turned out black when they were developed as if they had been exposed to light.
Antoine Lavoisier
Lavoisier, who is often called the
father of modern chemistry,
transformed chemistry by using
careful and precise measurements
of the mass changes during chemical reactions, instead of just using observations.
FUN FACT: Lavoisier was arrested, tried, and beheaded during the French Revolution.
1672- 1727
Isaac Newton
During this time he published his work on the spectral and particle nature of light, the mathematics behind gravitation, as well as some research on acids and chemical force. He later went on to be president of the Royal Society.
J. J. Thompson

Daniel Defoe publishes The Storm the same year Newton publishes Opticks
Ernest Rutherford
King Leopold II carves out the Congo Free State as his personal African colony
Cathode Ray Tube
Discovered the nucleus
Known for doing the gold foil experiment, in which he blasted a narrow beam of alpha particles onto the gold foil, one atom thin
He then noticed that some alpha particles that deflected black, leading him to realize that there must be a nucleus in which all of the protons were located, which resulted in the deflecting of the positively charge alpha particles.
458 BC
The Battle of Tanagra took place when Democritus was two in 458 BC between Sparta and Athens during the First Peloponnesian War.
A vacuum tube with an electron gun, the electrons emitted from the cathode through the donut shaped anode, and into the end of the tube.
USS Maine explodes, eventually leading to the Spanish-American War
356 BC- Alexander the Great is born.
The American Revolution!
Hattie W. Caraway is the first woman elected to the US Senate
Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia, was crowned.
January 30, 1882
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, future president, is born
Niels Bohr
Expanded Rutherford's original atom model by stating that electrons travel in orbits
Thereby creating the Bohr model
Also stated that when electrons jump from an outer orbit into an inner orbit it creates light
Robert Millikan
Plum pudding model
Discovered the electron using the cathode ray
Proved that isotopes are stable
1906 he proved that the Hydrogen atom contained only one single electron.
Had accurate values of both charge and the ratio of the charge to the mass of an electron
From there he calculated the accurate mass of the electron through his oil drop experiment
He accomplished this by putting a charge on a drop of oil, then working out the mass of the oil drop. from there he could calculate the the force of the gravity, then the electric charge.
He then figured out that the charge was always a multiple of -1.6 x 10 -19 C, the charge of a single electron. from there, he was able to figure out the rest of the charges
Erwin Schrodinger
Hawaii became a U.S. territory
Las Vegas, Nevada is founded
First winter olympics was held in France
First transatlantic phone call
Discovered that electrons are in orbitals around the nucleus, but were distributed in electron clouds
This lead to the quantum mechanical model we still use today
U.S. Civil War
March 18 – International Women's Day is celebrated for the first time
The word computer is used for the first time
Karl Landsteiner develops a system of blood grouping.
April 24 – Treaty of Berlin
Quantum Mechanical Model
Makes use of uncertainty principle and the behavior of electrons as both particles and waves to represent electron shells as clouds of locations an electron is likely to be.
Atomic Emissions Spectra
Bunsen and Kirchhoff associate a unique spectral pattern to each element. We now know this is due to the electrons in the atom unique pattern of returning from an energized state to the ground state, emitting light in the process.
The U.S. Government shut down.
by Evan N, Nivedha G, Ryan E, and Jen L
Heisenberg and Schrodinger are driving in a car. A policeman pulls them over and asks "Do you know how fast you were going?" Heisenberg replies "Of course not!" The policeman tells them their speed, and Heisenberg exclaims "Great, now we're lost!" At this point, the policeman began to search the car. Upon opening the trunk, he yells "Did you two know you had a dead cat back here?" to which Schrodinger responds "Well NOW we do!"
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