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Eurasian/Classical Empires

by

Jocelyn Harty

on 1 September 2016

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Transcript of Eurasian/Classical Empires

Persian Empire
The Achaemenids
India
The Greeks
Sparta, Athens, and Hellenism
Rome and China
Geography
Government
Rome
FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE
China
ALL SEPARATED
DESIGN
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Eurasian Empires in the Classical Era
Harty, AP World History
Persian Kings
Persian Bureaucracy
Wars
Alexander and Hellenism
Growth of Empires
Cyrus the Great and Darius.
Absolute power, elaborate rituals.
Centralized control.
Multiculturalism
Diverse people.
Tolerant of their cultures (rel, lang).
Satraps
: governors of 23 diverse provinces.
Royal Road
: central road on which postal service, military, and spies used.
Eyes and Ears of the King
: spies to keep satraps and other local leaders in check.
Mountainous terrain led to development of city-states.
United as Hellenes: common language, religion, and rituals (Olympics).
Two main city-states: Sparta and Athens.
Sparta: Duarchy, militaristic, women equals.
Athens: Direct Democracy, patriarchy.
Expansion through migration around Med. and Black Seas. Spread Greek culture.
Created idea of citizenship.
Hoplite warfare: men who afford armor served as infantry. Soon they demanded political rights and challenged the elites or tyrants (not crazy rulers)
Eventually, this need for political rights led to the creation in a Direct Democracy (Solon and Pericles).
Greco-Persian Wars
Cause: Athens supported the failed Ionian Greek revolt in Persia.
Events: Battle of Marathon and Salamis.
Effects: Athens democracy radicalized, sparked golden age, and created of East-West divide.
Peloponnesian War:
Cause: Power struggle b/t Athens&co (Delian) and Sparta&co (Pelop.).
Effect: Weakened Greece and made way for Macedonian invasion.
Philip II: invade Greece and unified city-states.
Alexander: invaded Persian Empire, made it to India before he died.
Effect: spread of Greek culture.
Hellenism: Spread of Greek culture throughout the world after Alexander's death and before Roman annexation.
Some resistance seen (ex: Jews)
Republic
Roman aristiocrats overthrew the monarchy and established a republic of the wealthy (aka Patricians).
Empire-Building
Roman army = privileged status, a way out of poverty.
As Rome expanded they had more border issues... so they expanded more to create more buffer zones.
Pater Familias: Father head of household.
Elite women had less restrictions.
Civil war over new wealthy elite and traditionalists. led to Octavian being named Emperor Augustus.
After Zhou, Warring States, until Qin Shiguangdi.
Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE): Legalism, Terracotta Army, standardized and uniform system of weights, measures, and Chinese characters.
Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE): brought in moralistic and scholarly ideas of Confucianism, civil service exam, expanded territory.
Strong Bureaucracy based on merit.
wanted good men, not just good laws
Consolidation
Supernatural sanctions: said the supernatural supported their regims.
Rome: emperors revered as gods
China: Mandate of Heaven
Absorbing foreign religion.
Rome: Christianity, Persian, and Egyptian faiths.
China: Buddhism entered China.
Assimilation
China: ethnically Chinese easy to assimilate.
Rome: slowly gave citizenship to non Romans.
Language
Rome: Latin spread and transformed as it did.
Chinese characters not dependent on regional pronunciation.
Collapse
3.
Nomadic Pressure
: Germanic peoples moving into Rome (thanks Huns) as well as Huns pushing into China.
Mauryan Empire
326-184 BCE
First Indian Empire.
Ashoka: most important Mauryan Emperor, conquered much of India but then stopped once he converted to Buddhism. Created Rock and Pillar Edicts based on Buddhism.
Gupta Empire
320-550 CE
Much smaller than the Mauryan Empire.
Golden Age of India: revival of Hinduism, art, architecture, literature, commerce, and the sciences.
Continued traditions of long-distance trade and work in astronomy.
1.
Overextension
: too big for infrastructure, couldn't control outlying areas or end rebellions.
2.
Rivalries amongst elites
: (Mandarin and Eunuchs in CH, elites claiming throne in RM) weakened the state.
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