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Lehninger. Principles of Biochemistry

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Sofia Ch

on 20 August 2015

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Transcript of Lehninger. Principles of Biochemistry

1.2 Chemical foundations
Biochemistry: Explain biological form & function in chemical terms.
1.3 Physical Foundations
Living cells and organisms must perform work to stay alive, because the reactions that occur within cells need energy.
Living organisms exist in a dynamic steady state, never at equilibrium with their surroundings
Molecules and ions in a living organism differ in kind and concentration from those in the organism´s surroundings.
1.5 Evolutionary Foundations
According with Dobzhansky, all modern organisms have a common evolutionary progenitor by a series of small changes (mutations).
Chapter 1.
The Foundations of Biochemistry

Tecnológico de Monterrey
Biochemistry
Eugenia Olivera Fox
August, 2015
Lehninger. Principles of Biochemistry
By:
Karen Analy Chávez Bracamontes A01205591
Diego Antonio Vargas Vanegas A01205045
Sofía Chufani de la Cuadra A01209015
Martha Ximena Rico Santana A01209160
Bibliography:
Lehninger, A. (2013). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (pp. 1-36). New York
1.1 Cellular Foundations
The study of biochemistry shows how the molecules that constitute living orgasnisms interact to mantain life
1.4 Genetic Foundations
Remarkable properties of living cells like reproduce themselves.
The genetic material has not changed over longer period.
The unchanged is the result of the continuity in the structure of the genetic material.
carbon
phosphorous
oxygen
nitrogen
"What is true of
E. coli
is true of the elephant"
Abundant: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon &
trace elements
biochemical unity
Cell's Metabolome
central metabolites
polar, soluble, concentrations
secondary metabolites
caffeine, nicotine, quinine, morphine
Occurrence:
evolutionary conservation of metabolic pahtways
Macromolecules
Informational
proteins
nucelic acids
enzymes, structural,
receptors and transporters
genetic info
polysaccharides
energy-rich fuel stores, structure and recognition elements
lipids
smaller but can associate noncovalently
structural, energy storage,
pigments and intracellular
signals
Stereochemistry
Stereospecificity
Conformation-rotation
Configuration- breaking bonds
stereoisomers
chiral centers
double bonds
geometric or Cis-trans isomers
trans
cis
enantiomers:
mirror
optical activity
4 different substituents
diasteromers:
not mirror
racemic mixture: 2 enantiomers
Carbon
Versatile:# of bonds, size, shape, composition
Biomolecules:derivative
of hydrocarbons
personality- functional
groups
Bond forming
- with itself and others
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid).
Is the structure of the genetic material.
It's formed by subunits called nucleotides.
In the linear polymer encodes the instructions for forming all other cellular components.
DNA ELEMENTS
DNA REPLICATION PROCESS
DNA is formed by two polimeric strands, and are twisted about each other.
Before a cell divides, DNA strands separate to generated a new brand and then synthesis a new one.
If one strand has a damaged, the genetic information is safe in the other strand.
DNA encodes Proteins
DNA encoded information in a linear way, the expression of this information result in a three-dimensional cell.
There are two steps in the synthesis of protein.
Transcription and Translation
The first step is the transcription, the DNA sequence is copied into an mARN in order to create bases pairs (G-C and A-U).
The second step is the translation, it occurs into the ribosomes where the mARN is read, and creates amino acids to produces proteins.
What is a mutation?
A mutation is an alteration in the genetic material (DNA). It can be transmitted to the offspring.
The goal of biochemistry
Organisms transform energy and matter from their surroundings
Organisms derive energy from their surroundings in two ways:
The flow of electrons provides energy for organisms.
Photoautotrophs
Chemotrophs
Autotrophs and heterotrophs
Creating and maintaining order requires work and energy.
plants and animals:
Jacques Monod:
"The total entropy of the universe is continually increasing".
Energy coupling links reactions in biology.
stable compunds
Keq and G° are measures of reaction's tendency to proceed spontaneously.
Enzymes promote sequences of chemical reactions.
Mutations can allow a better adaption to organism in an environment in order to survive and prosper.
This is what Darwin meant by "survival of the fittest under selective pressure" the process of natural selection.
Enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions in cells are functionally organized into many sequences of consecutive reactions, called pathways.
Metabolism
Metabolism is regulated to achieve balance and economy.
RNA?
Key enzymes in each metabolic pathway are regulated so that each type of precursor molecule is produced in a quantity appropriate to the current requirements of the cell.
The first genetic material.
The lack of oxygen and microorganisms to clean organic compounds caused the incorporation of organic compound into the evolving cell to produce self-reproducing catalysts.
Photosynthesis
Earliest cells
Inorganic fuels
Unicellular organisms
Use of energy in the environment
Less dependent on outside sources
Evolutionary event
Pigments capable of capturing the energy of light from the sun
"Oxygen holocaust"
Biochemistry describes in molecular terms the structure, mechanisms and chemical process shared by all organisms
Features that make living organisms unique
1.Great chemical and microscopic organization
2.Functions that regulate the interaction between their components to create life
3.Each organism has a defense mechanism
4.Systems to mantain the equilibrium with its surroundings
5.Capacity for self replication and self assembly
6.Capacity to evolve
Cell structure
Plasma membrane
(barrier to free passage of inorganic ions, transport proteins, made by lipids and pronteins molecules.

Citoplasm (is enclosed by the plasma membrane, contains cytosol)
Cytosol
Eukaryotic cells
The change from non-nucleated (prokariotic) to nucleated cells (eukaryotic).
Concentrate the DNA in a specific space (nucleus).
As cells became larger, a system of intracellular membranes developed.
By endosymbiotic anaerobic cells became aerobic cells.
Proteasomes
Ribosomes
Coenzymes
Metabolites
Genome
The genome allows the study of evolutionary information.
The sequence similarities in two genes are called homologs.
When two homologous occur in the same species are called paralogous.
When two homologous occur in different species are called orthologous.
Genome-Cellular Processes
Each gene of the genome has a specific function in the DNA processes.
When a organism is more complex, its genome encodes in regulation of cellular processes, and less in basic processes.
Three domains of life
Eukarya
Archae
Bacteria
It has organelles that can be isolated for study
Claude, Duve and Palade developed methods to separate the organelles from the cytosol
Structural hierarchy in the molecular organization of cells
1.Monomeric units
(nucleotides, aminoacids, etc.)
2.Macromolecules
(DNA, proteins, etc.
3.Supramolecular complexes
(Chromatin, cell wall, etc.)
4.Cell and its organelles
Are joined by covalent bonds
Hydrogen bonds
Ionic interactions
Hydrophobic interactions
Van der Waals interactions
cells build supramolecular structures
Cell wall made by peptydoglican
Cell wall made by pseudopeptydoglican
Single celled microorganisms
Multicellular microorganisms
Cytoskeleton
Protein filaments crisscrossing the eukaryotic cell forming the interlocking tridimensional meshwork
Actin filaments
Microtubules
Intermediate filaments
Give the structure and organization of the cytoplasm and shape to the cell
Ways to obtain energy
Phototrophs
(light)
Chemotrophs
(oxidation of fuels)
Organotrophs
(organic fuels)
Lhitotrophs
(Inorganic compounds)
Heterotrophs
(Organic compunds)
Autotrophs
(CO2)
4. The cell and it's organelles
Homogenate
centrifuged
sedimentation
isopycnic
centrifugation
Full transcript