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6.2 Igneous Rock
Transcript of 6.2 Igneous Rock
When magma cools and hardens, it forms
The Formation of Magma
Rocks melt into magma.
Three factors affect melting:
Addition of liquid
The chemical composition of a rock determines the melting temperature.
When different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures.
The crystallization and removal of different minerals from cooling magma.
Textures of Igneous Rock
The texture depends on crystal size.
Crystal size depends on the cooling rate of the magma.
Large mineral grains.
Mixture of small and large crystals.
Gas that was trapped produce bubbles in the cooling magma.
Magma cools very quickly.
No crystals form.
Composition of Igneous Rock
Three families of igneous rock:
1. Felsic Rock
High silica content.
Light in color.
Mainly K-feldspar and quartz.
Ex: granite and rhyolite.
2. Intermediate Rock
The "middle" between felsic and mafic.
Examples: diorite and andesite
3. Mafic Rock
High amounts of iron and magnesium.
Dark in color.
Ex: basalt and gabbro
Intrusive Igneous Rock
- igneous rock masses that form underground.
Magma enters into other rock masses and cools.
Spread over at least 100 sq. km.
Cover less than 100 sq. km.
Push overlaying rock into domes.
Base lays parallel to rock layers.
Parallel to surrounding rock layers.
Cut across rock layers.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
- igneous rock that forms above the surface.
A vent through which magma, gases, and/or volcanic ash is expelled.
Magma in the vent cools and hardens.
Softer material erodes away around it.
Flat masses of rock.
A series of lava flows.
Deposits of volcanic ash and other solid particles.