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6.2 Igneous Rock

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Samantha Dieck

on 4 May 2014

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Transcript of 6.2 Igneous Rock

Chapter 6 Section 2:
Igneous Rock

When magma cools and hardens, it forms
igneous rock.
The Formation of Magma
Rocks melt into magma.
Three factors affect melting:
Temperature
Pressure
Addition of liquid

The chemical composition of a rock determines the melting temperature.
Partial Melting
When different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures.

Fractional Crystallization
The crystallization and removal of different minerals from cooling magma.
Textures of Igneous Rock
The texture depends on crystal size.
Crystal size depends on the cooling rate of the magma.
Coarse-Grained Texture
Large mineral grains.
Ex: Granite
Fine-Grained Texture
Small crystals.
Ex: Basalt
Porphyritic Texture
Mixture of small and large crystals.
Ex: Rhyolite
Vesicular Texture
Gas that was trapped produce bubbles in the cooling magma.
Ex: Pumice
Glassy Texture
Magma cools very quickly.
No crystals form.
Ex: Obsidian
Composition of Igneous Rock
Three families of igneous rock:

1. Felsic Rock
High silica content.
Light in color.
Mainly K-feldspar and quartz.
Ex: granite and rhyolite.
2. Intermediate Rock
The "middle" between felsic and mafic.
Examples: diorite and andesite

3. Mafic Rock
High amounts of iron and magnesium.
Dark in color.
Ex: basalt and gabbro
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Intrusion
- igneous rock masses that form underground.
Magma enters into other rock masses and cools.
Batholiths
Spread over at least 100 sq. km.
Stocks
Cover less than 100 sq. km.
Laccoliths
Push overlaying rock into domes.
Base lays parallel to rock layers.
Sills
Parallel to surrounding rock layers.
Dikes
Cut across rock layers.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Extrusion
- igneous rock that forms above the surface.

Volcano
A vent through which magma, gases, and/or volcanic ash is expelled.
Volcanic Neck
Magma in the vent cools and hardens.
Softer material erodes away around it.
Lava Flows
Flat masses of rock.
Lava Plateau
A series of lava flows.
Tuff
Deposits of volcanic ash and other solid particles.
Full transcript