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Chapter 16: In Belgian Brussels (1890)
Transcript of Chapter 16: In Belgian Brussels (1890)
Life in Brussels
Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. They lived in a modest boarding house on 38 Rue Philippe Champagne.
Articles Published in
"A La Defensa" (To La Defensa), April 30, 1889.
"La Verdad Para Todos" (The Truth For All), May 31, 1889.
"Vicente Barrantes' Teatro Tagalo", June 15, 1889.
"Una Profanacion" (A Profanation), July 31, 1889.
"Verdades Nuevas" (New Truths), July 31, 1889.
"Crueldad" (Cruelty), August 15, 1889.
"Diferencias" (Differences), September 15, 1889.
"Inconsenquencias" (Inconsequences), November 30, 1889.
"Llanto y Risas" (Tears and Laughter), November 30, 1889.
"Ingratitudes" (Ingratitude), January 15, 1890.
New Orthography of Tagalog Language
In spite of his European education and his knowledge of foreign languages, Rizal loved his own native language.
He was the first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography.
For instance, the Tagalog letters
should be used instead of the Spanish
salacot - salakot ; arao - araw
End of Chapter 16
Zaide, G. & Zaide, S. (2008).
Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist, and National Hero 2nd Edition
. All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc.; Quezon City, Philippines
On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium
Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipinos for Gambling
In Brussels, Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Vnetura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much
Accordingly, Rizal wrote to M.H. del Pilar on May 28, 1890 to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their Fatherland's freedom.
Bad News from Home
The management of the Dominican hacienda continually raised the land rents until such time that Rizal's father refused to pay his rent. Other tenants, inspired by Don Francisco's courage, also refused to pay the unreasonable rents.
The Dominican Order file a suit in court to disposses the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba.
Two reasons impelled Rizal to leave Paris, namely:
1.) the cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition
2.) the gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writing of his second novel
Rizal's friends were of to belief he left because he was running away from a girl just as he left London.
Presentiment of Death
In his moment of despair Rizal had bad dreams during the nights in Brussels when he was restless because he was always thinking of his unhappy family in Calamba.
Rizal was busy writing his second novel,
, which was a continuation of the
Noli Me Tangere.
Aside from writing it's chapters, he wrote articles for
and letters to his family and friends.
Adopted the Filipinized Tagalog orthography in his Tagalog translations of Schiller's
"Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala" (The New Orthography of the Tagalog Language), April 15, 1890.
"El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagala" (Sanskrit in the Tagalog Language), 1884.
Preparation to Go Home
In the face of the sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home. He would not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives, and friends in the distant Philippines were persecuted.
Upon hearing that Graciano Lopez Jaena was planning to go to Cuba, he wrote to Ponce on July 9, 1890, opposing Graciano's plan of action.
"We have only once to die, and if we do not die well, we lose an opportunity whuch will not again be presented to us."
Decision to Go to Madrid
Rizal's friends were horrified by his plan to return to the Philippines. They warned him of the danger that awaited him at home.
Rizal ignored the dire warning of his friends . No threat or danger could change his plan.
However, something happened that chaged his plan:
A letter from Paciano which is related about the lost case against the Dominicans in Manila.
Appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain and a lawyer was needed.
He is going to Madrid in order to supervise the handling of the case.
This morbid presentiment of early death was divulged by him to M.H del Pilar, in a letter from Brussels dated June 11, 1890, as follows:
. . .In my childhood I had a strange belief that I would not reach thirty years of age. . .
. . .There were two months during which almost every night I had no other dream than that my friends and relatives are dead. . .
. . .Although I do not believe in these things and although my body is very strong and I have no illness and have no fear, I am preparing myself for death and for any eventuality. "Laong Laan" (Ever Ready) is my true name. For this reason, I want to finish at all costs the second volume of Noli and if it is possible I do not want to leave unfinished what nobody else could continue. . .
To My Muse (1890)
It was against a background of mental anguish in Brussels, during those sad days when he was worried by family disasters, that he wrote his pathetic poem, "
A Mi . . .
" (To My Muse). This poem lacks the exquisiteness of "
To the Filipino Flowers of Heidelberg
", and is less polished than"
To the Filipino Youth
", but it is passionate in feeling.
Romance with Petite Jacoby
Two things brought measure of cheer to Rizal as he prepare for his trip to Madrid:
The summertime in Belgium which was celebrated in carnival style.
Romance with Petite Jacoby, niece of his landladies
Rizal being charming and dignified gentleman causes Petite Suzanne to be attracted to him. He was lonely in a strange country and Leonor Rivera was so far away.
Naturally, being a normal young man found certain bliss in the company of a pretty Belgian girl.
Joan Aguilar and Nathalie Ines