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Nationalism & European Imperialism

introduction
by

Joyce Pevler

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Nationalism & European Imperialism

1880s: French try and fail to build a canal.
Columbia owns Panama.
1903: US offers Columbia $10 million and yearly payments to build a canal in Panama.
Columbia agrees then wants more money. Lasted
27
years Cities and Crops
Destroyed Thousand
of
Greeks
died Economic
and
Military
Losses King Philip II
comes to power
in Macedonia Nationalism & Imperialism Early 1800s: Three views of government Conservative: Protect monarchy
Liberal: More power to parliaments
Radical: Drastic change - democracy to all Nationalism will upset the balance of power created by the Congress of Vienna. Nationalism: the belief that people should be loyal to their nation - people who share a common culture & history. -Loyalty should not be to a king or empire.
-Blurs the lines that separate the political theories Nation-state: a nation with its own independant government (protects the nation's territory & way of life) Europe 1815: Only Britian, France, & Spain are nation-states. Nationalism supported by liberals & radicals. *Three Types of Nationalism *Unification *Separation *Nation-building Merger of politically divided but culturally similar lands Culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries to break away Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture The Greeks
1821: Greeks rebel against Ottoman Turks Popular world-wide: Christian versus Muslim
1827: Battle of Navarino - British, Russian, and French navies defeat the Ottomans First European people to win self-rule 1830: Britian, Russia, & France sign treat to keep Greece independant. The United States Italy: Piedmont-Sardinia largest & most powerful 1848: Adopted liberal constitution
1858: Seizes land from Austria. Southern states unite with Piedmont-Sardinia Italy 1859 Venetia Papal States Kingdom of
Two Sicilies Piedmont Tuscany Sardinia 1860 1861 1870 Italy is
unified!! Germany:
Prussia leads German unification Prussia mainly German
Nationalism unifies Prussia
Prussia has most powerful army. Otto von Bismark (Conservative Prime Minister)
Employs realpolitik
Adopts policy of "blood and iron" Seven Weeks’ War
1866: Austria declares war on Prussia
Prussians have superior equipment and training –- it’s a rout.
Austrians lose Venetia to Italy.
Prussia takes control of Northern Germany.
Eastern and Western Prussia are now joined.
1867: North German Confederation created, dominated by Prussia Franco-Prussian War Bismark wants southern German states to unite with Prussia, because they are Catholic they resist.
Bismark creates a situation (war) with France.
July 19, 1870: Prussia declares war on France. September 1870: French surrender
German unification is complete. Southern German accept Prussia rule -- protection.
Prussia showed it's more powerful. 1848 Revolutions - Ethnic uprisings in Europe Ethnic minorities push for self-rule
Mob violence in Vienna
Budapest: Self-government for Hungary
Prague: Czechs demand Bohemian independence. Revolutionaries fail to unite themselves or their nations.

Conservatism returns by 1849. People of the Austrian Empire: Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and Italians.
Prussia defeats Austria in Austro-Prussian War. Claims 21 of German states.
Hungarians push for separation - …Emperor Francis Joseph splits empire in half– he rules both Austria and Hungary. Austrian Empire Empire breaks up after World War I. The Russian Empire Crumbles
People of the Russian Empire: Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians, and Turks. Russian Empire Czarist empire collapses after World War I and Communists takeover. Russia enforces Russification, forcing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire. Backfires …strengthens nationalist feeling. The Ottoman Empire Weakens
People of the Ottoman Empire: Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians.
1856: Ottomans grant equal citizenship to all people under their rule. Ottoman Empire Empire breaks up after World War I. France somewhere in the middle.
Russia & Austria trailing far behind. 1871: Britian and Germany are the most powerful in Europe. Canada First European country to colonize Canada - France France loses French-Indian War
Loses Canada French settled mainly on St. Lawrence River. English-speakers move to Canada after Britain gets rule and Loyalists move after the Revolution -- settle along Atlantic Ocean and Great Lakes French & English Colonies Differences causing conflict:
French culture & Roman Catholic
British/American culture & Protestant 1791: Parliament divides Canda
Upper Canada (English)
Lower Canada (French) Each province has a local assembly. Royal governor and wealthy British hold power.
Is this a problem??
1830s: Rebellions break out.
Middle-class demand political and economic reforms. Lower Canada, French resent British. Durham Report 1867: The Dominion of Canada is established.
1982: Last legal bindings to England’s Parliament are severed. The Findings . . . Reunite Upper & Lower Canada
Encourage British immigration
Allow self-government of domestic affairs. Australia & New Zealand Explorer James Cook claimed New Zealand (1769) and Australia (1770) for Britain. Maori (Polynesian natives) greet Cook in New Zealand
Australia was thought to be uninhabited. Australia was populated by Aborigines -- longest ongoing culture in the world. British Colonization Penal colonies were used frequently by Europe.
Ex-cons could then remain, buy land, and settle. 1788: Britain begins to colonize Australia. Australia is started as a penal colony -- place where convicts were sent to serve their time. Australia now populated by . . .
Aborigines, Felons, Prison Guards, Ex-Cons, & Free Settlers. Early 1800s: Free settlers begin to arrive.
England offered cheap land to encourage settlement.
1851: GOLD!!! Population explodes. 1850s: Australia and New Zealand become self-governing, but are still part of the British Empire.
Early 1900s: Australia and New Zealand become dominions. 1850s: Secret ballot introduced in Australia
1893: New Zealand granted white women full voting rights. Ireland The Great Famine
Potato is a staple of the Irish diet
1845 -– 1851: Potato blight strikes and ruins the crop.
Famine occurs -- millions will die. At the time of the Famine – pop. 8 million.

At least 1 million will die of starvation and disease – 10 - 25% of the population.

About 1.5 million will leave Ireland. The Irish are starving --–
rent must be paid.
There is no money to pay rent.
Irish are evicted.

NOW –-- Starving AND Homeless Some landowners purchase tickets for tenants to leave Ireland.

Ships sink --– Over 400,00 die on the “coffin ships” 50% Emigrate to US
36% Emigrate to Britain
12% Emigrate to Canada
2% Emigrate to Australia Population of Ireland is reduced 25-30% between death and emigration by 1851. After the Famine . . .
Some Irish push for independence
Some Irish push for home rule – local control over internal matters
Britain refuses both options.
1914: Bill for home rule is approved -– one month before enacted, World War I breaks out. When we left Africa . . . Europe and Africa had been in contact for hundreds of years.
Africa was one-third of the Triangular Trade.
What was the most valuable item of the Triangular Trade Route? Up to the 1800s, Africa was controlled by the Africans. Europeans who enter the interior were explorers, missionaries, or humanitarians opposed to the slave trade. European control of Africa = 10%, only on coasts Reasons Europeans did NOT dominate:
1. Powerful African armies.
2. African rivers difficult to navigate.
3. Diseases Europeans had no exposure to Africa African traveler, David Livingstone most well-known
"Disappeared into Africa.
Reporter Henry Stanley sent to search for Livingstone.

Stanley's famous line: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. Imperialism Europe and America will follow this policy to dominate Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Forces Driving Imperialism
Maxim Gun: first automatic machine gun
Steam Engine allows for transportation
Quinine to prevent malaria Belief in European Superiority Europeans believe they are better than other people, basic racism. Social Darwinism: The fittest had the most wealth. Want to “tame the natives” -- civilize
Spread Chrisitianity New Advances: King Leopold II of Belgium hires Stanley to secure agreements from the Congolese tribes for total control of the Congo. European countries expanding into Africa.
Finding gold, diamonds, and other resources. . .
Everyone wants a piece. Berlin Conference
To prevent a European war over the African lands, 14 nations meet in Berlin in 1884-5
Decide how to divide Africa. Create TWO rules. 1. Any European country could claim land by notifying the other European nations.
2. The country must show it can control the area. Scramble for Africa is on . . . Stanley remains in Africa to explore the Congo River.
After locating Livingstone, Stanley is known world-wide. Stanley uses promises, threats, and tricks.
Stanley gets the agreements. This is not Belgium -- this is Leopold operating as an individual citizen.
Leopold claims to want to spread Christianity. Leopold really wants to exploit the region for its resources, especially the rubber. Named the Congo Free State and controlled by Leopold’s personal army. Deaths under Leopold are estimated at 10 million. Harvesting rubber is labor intensive The Congolese will be forced to work, for pay, but are subject to brutal treatment.
Whippings, amputations, and mutilations were common punishment for failure to meet quotas. Congolese will flee when possible Belgium seizes the Congo from Leopold in 1908, due to his insane treatment of the people. Leopold has free rein until news of the Congolese treatment reaches the world. African Resistance Many groups resisted, but European weaponry stopped any revolts. 1905 - 1907: Maji Maji Revolt in German East Africa (Tanzania).

Most well-known battle: Africans sprinkle “magic water” on their bodies
Africans attack Germans with spears
Germans respond with machine guns --– over 5,000 die

End of revolt: 75,000 -– 350,000 natives dead. Boer Wars Boers (Dutch descendants) live in Transvaal and Orange Free State
Boers fight British for control of gold and diamond mines and self-government Two wars fought over control of South Africa. First War
Dec 1880 -– Mar 1881
Boers dress in khaki
British dress in red

British withdraw and allow self-government 1885: Gold discovered
in Transvaal Second War
Oct 1899 -– May 1902
Boers launch attack --– at first successful
Guerilla warfare occurs
British change tactics --– now destroy farms, confiscate food, and place Boer civilians in concentration camps. According to a British journalist, WT Stead, the concentration camps were nothing more than a cruel torture machine.
The detainees received no fruit or vegetables; not even milk for the babies.
The meat and flour issued were crawling with maggots.
Emily Hobhouse wrote: "I have in my possession coffee and sugar which were described as follows by a London analyst: In the case of the first, 66% imitation, and in the case of the second, sweepings from a warehouse." The Result: Boers are defeated
British lost 22,000 soldiers
Boers lost over 25,000 civilians

Transvaal and the Orange Free State are placed within the British Empire 1914: Only TWO African countries remain independent --– Liberia and Ethiopia Liberia is not completely independent due to the sphere of influence from the United States
1896: Ethiopia goes to war against and defeats Italy. Ethiopia --
Only African nation to successfully resist Europeans. Menelik II plays Italy, France, and Britain against each other to gain time. Buys new weapons from France & Russia. Signs a treaty with Italy as a protectorate -– thought they were cheated. Legacy of Colonial Rule Positive Effects: -Reduced local warfare
-Improved sanitation, new schools and hospitals
-Life spans and literacy rates increase
-Economic expansion Negative Effects: -Africans lose control of land.
-Tension between tribes
and societies
-New diseases
-Population loss in resistance
-Loss of traditional culture
-Division of the continent India & Egypt 1707: Mughal Empire collapsing.
1757: East India Company troops defeat Indian forces and now it controls India. *Positive
*-Third largest railroad network in world.
-Telephone and telegraph lines laid
-Sanitation and public health improved
-Schools and colleges *Negative
-Britain held political and economic power.
-Restricted Indian-owned industry
*-Emphasis on cash crops reduced food production, famines occur
-Racist attitude East India Company rules India until 1858.

Britain needs Indian raw materials AND India provides a market for British goods. Sepoy Mutiny Problems:
Indians resent racism of British
Resent British control of land
Believe Britain wants them to convert Unrest is in the air . . . Changes made to service contracts.
No more pensions.
Promotions difficult
Region of security is increased 1857: New Enfield rifles are to be issued to sepoys - Indian soldiers.
Cartridges needed ends bitten off.
Rumored that cartridges greased with pork and beef fat.
Sepoys are mainly Muslims or Hindus.
(Muslims do not eat pork & cattle are sacred to Hindus)
British fight the sepoys Soldiers refuse the new cartridges.
Officer jails men who refused. Sepoys rebel.
Revolt spreads through much of northern India. British government sends troops to help the East India Company.

About a year later the East India Company regains control. Indians are defeated because they were unable to unite.
Weak leadership
Religious differences between Hindus & Muslims - distrust
Hindus did not want Mughal (Muslim) Empire restored.
Cabinet minister directs policy in London, governor-general in India carries out orders.

Not all princes joined the rebellion and they received specials privileges from the British. 1858: Rebellion over -- British crown takes control of India. Mutiny increased the distrust between British & Indians. India becomes the "jewel in the crown" of all British holdings. Impact of Colonialism on India Egypt is important -- access to Red Sea.
December 1858: Construction begins on a canal to connect Mediterranean & Red Seas. Canal is built with (forced) Egyptian labor & French money Suez Canal opens November 17, 1869 Cost of the canal is DOUBLE the original estimates.
Egypt is in debt -- and soon is unable to pay the interest on their loans. 1875: Egypt sells its share of the Suez Canal to the British.

1882: Britain occupies Egypt to oversee the finances of the canal. Nationalism War & Expansion in the US America Moves West . . . Manifest Destiny: The belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Used to justify Native American relocation. Indian Removal Act of 1830: Native Americans in the East MUST move west (it's the law) Native Americans in the East are moved to Oklahoma. They WALK . . . Around 2,200 MILES
Known as the Trail of Tears. Officially 424 died.
Estimated 8,000 died. Now they have to adapt to Oklahoma climate. Texas 1821: Mexico independent from Spain.
Anglos were encouraged to move into territory
Anglo population grows -- problems with Mexico
Texas wanted self-government -- Mexico refused. 1836: Texas revolts under leadership of Stephan Austin
Win Independence!!!

1845: Texas annexed into the US. PROBLEM: Texas STILL claims Texas
Now What??? War with Mexico May 1846 - February 1848:
War fought for control of Texas. Training ground for most of the Civil War officers -- from BOTH Sides. -Mexico surrenders
-Loses disputed territory AND all territory to the West of Texas. Manifest Destiny is complete
1803: Louisiana Purchase - doubled the US
1819: Spain gave up Florida
1830: Indians moved to the West
1835: Annexed Texas
1846: Gained part of Oregon Territory from Britian
1848: Won the West from Mexico Build-up to the Civil War The Sides . . . The North The South -Diversified economy --
farms & factories
-Free workers
-Many cities
-Large population Farm economy --
cash crops
Slave labor
Few cities
Spread out population The Issues . . . States' Rights 10th Amendment Slavery Pro-Slavery: Slavery everywhere
Anti-Slavery: No slavery anywhere
Opposed Growth: Leave slavery where it is Sectionalism Industrial North: More money, pushes for tariffs
Agricultural South: Depends on trade The Tipping Point Civil War Breaks Out 1860: Lincoln elected Southern states secede (withdraw) from Union
The Confederate States of America --
a new country in formed.

April 12, 1861: Confederates fire on Fort Sumter (Charleston, SC) THE WAR IS ON Maroon: States that seceded before April 15, 1861
Red: States that seceded after April 15, 1861
Yellow: Union states that permitted slavery
Dark Blue: Union states that banned slavery
Light Blue: Territories *Northern Advantages:
Factories
Population
Better transportation
More resources
More states *Southern Advantages:
Military leadership
Defensive strategy
More unified population in favor of the war.
Europe supports for economic reasons. Abolition of Slavery War is fought for four years 1863: Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation
Frees all slaves in the Confederacy Union army frees slaves as it advances through south 13th Amendment: Abolishes slavery in the US South surrenders on April 9, 1865 at the Appomattox Court House Over 600,000 men die during the war -- action & disease. Reconstruction Lincoln assassinated April 15, 1865 -- wanted to quickly reunite the Union. 1865 - 1877: Union troops occupy the South to enforce constitutional protections Reconstruction an era of vengence.
Radical Republicans gain control of Congress & work to punish the South.
Sets the South back for generations US Imperialism Latin America After
Independence Independence means little for most.
Peonage system keeps workers poor
Landowners gain wealth after independence
-Buy land from new governments
Europeans did not teach democracy Political instability is widespread. Post-War America 1870s - 1914: 20 million immigrants arrived. Immigrants assist in US industrialization Most immigrants enter through Ellis Island (NY) 1862 - 1869: Transcontinental Railroad is built America is linked by rail coast to coast
Coal & materials to factories
Goods to market Dictatorship is normal. Latin America depends on exports
Production increases due to technology Latin America exports agricultural products to America and Europe Latin American countries import manufactured goods & DO NOT develop manufacturing Use income to develop projects. . .
Not enough income, so they borrow. Monroe Doctrine -Latin American countries fear European invasion after independence
-Russia making claims along the Pacific coast US not impressed 1823: President James Monroe in the State of the Union stated that Europe was not to colonize or interfere with affairs in the Americas. Cuba
Last Spanish colony in the Americas 1868: Begin fight for independence US has strong economic ties with Cuba Spain forces civilians into concentration camps USS Maine docked in Havana Harbor The Maine EXPLODES -- killing 260 men!!! USS Maine video 1898: US joins Cuba in fight for independence

Spanish-American War begins
First American attack is on . . . The Philippines!!!
(Spanish holding in the Pacific) Soldiers also sent to Cuba Two bloodiest battles in Cuba: Battles of San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill Cuban battle heros: Rough Riders (all volunteer unit) led by Theodore Roosevelt Spain cannot fight a two-front war and quickly submits. Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines are now US territories Positive Result of War:
Walter Reed studies the transmission and treatment of yellow fever. (Highest cause of death in the Spanish-American War) Travel between Atlantic and Pacific is LONG and EXPENSIVE.
With territories on both sides of country an access route is needed. 1880s: French try & fail to build a canal.
Columbia owns Panama. 1903: US offers Columbia $10 million and yearly payments to build a canal in Panama. Columbia agrees -- then wants more money.
US encourages independence movement in Panama.

1903: Panamanians win independence with US support. Panama gives the US a ten-mile-wide zone to build a canal. 1904: Roosevelt Corollary gave the US the right to be “an international police power” in the Americas.
1914: US opens the Panama Canal.
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