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Transcript of Introduction
Europeanization effects on national asylum policy.
Areas of interest.
-Integration and cohesion
-Health and social care
-Poverty, destitution and access to accommodation and finical support
-Education , training and the labor market.
-Policies towards children
Number of asylum applications received by EU countries from 2008-2012 (per 1,000 inhabitants)
"A process of change in national institutional and policy practices that can be attributed to European integration" (Hix and Goetz 2000:27)
Asylum policy in the European Union has been on the increase for the past decade with the call for a establishment of a common European Asylum system.
- Dublin convention (1990)- lodge application only in the first E.U. member state entered.
- European council in Tampere (1999) - a common European asylum system set up out with aims and principles outlined
- Dublin Regulation(2003) and The Reception Conditions Directive(2003)-imposed minimum standards such as housing , Health care and Education for asylum seekers.
- Procedures Directive (2005)- all member states would have same minimum standards including access to legal aid.
The legal foundation for a common asylum policy can be seen to have developed over the last decade
The Europeanization effects on national asylum/refugee policy's
-Lead to a race to the bottom-to discourage asylum seekers choosing the country of destination. Czaika(2009)
Tightening of border controls and lowering recognition rates. Monheim-Helstraffer and Obidzink (2010)
Has institutionalization of a common E.U. policy led to any convergence in policy outcomes. Neumayer (2005)
There is major discrepancies in the concentration of applications and the recognition rates for asylum seekers from the same country of origin in different European destination states.
Motivation for development of common E.U. asylum policy has been the reduction of the inequality of the asylum burden and need to inquire whether the E.U. has had any impact on the distribution of the asylum applications and recognized refugees across Europe.Thielemann et al (2010)
Conclusions so far.
There hasn't been a race tot he bottom with regard to asylum applications and decisions. The number of people recognized as refugees or allowed to stay for humanitarian reasons has increased across the E.U.
There are indications for convergence among european countries in the major indicators of asylum policy. Recognition rates are smaller now than 10 years ago.
When not looking at convergence rates there are important national differences. The main essay will discuss this further.