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AP World History Timeline: 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E
Transcript of AP World History Timeline: 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E
Conflict between Western Mediteranean Christian Church of Rome and Christian Church of Constantinople (Greek roots); Great Schism (1054)
Crusades greatly affected racial ties between Christians and Muslims
1. Declaration of faith
2. Mandatory prayers
5. Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca
Rigid social movement
lived by Sharia or Law code
Umma (collective community)
ulema (scholar elite)
December 8, 2013
Indian Ocean Trade
Summer (winds blow Southwest)
Winter (winds blow Northeast)
allowed mariners to sail safely to all parts of Indian Ocean Basin
maritime trade networks through the Indian Ocean linked not only the large classical societies of Eurasia and North Africa but also smaller societies in East Africa
establishment and maintenance of these trade routes was an expensive affair calling for substantial investment in military forces, construction, and bureaucracies to administer the commerce that passed over the routes
long-distance trade stimulated economic development within the Hellenistic realms themselves, bringing benefits to local economies throughout the empires.
Hellenistic rulers closely supervised foreign trade and levied taxes on it, there by deriving income even from foreign products
silk-China; spices/ cloves/ nutmeg/ mace/ cardamom-Southeast Asia; ginger/ cinnamon-China; pepper/ sesame oil-India and Arabia; large, strong horses/ jade- Central Asia; glassware/ jewelry/ art/ decorative items/ perfumes/ bronze goods/ wool and linen textiles/ pottery/ iron tools/ olive oil/ wine/ gold/ silver bullion-Roman Empire
Mongols controlled and protected route
Timeline/History of The Crusades:
Also known together as the Holy Wars
Series of expeditions to take lands in
These lands held religious significance
for both Christians and Muslims
Open hatred between Muslims and Christians
which can still be traced to even today
Demographic and Environmental Changes
-Spread of Islam : Muhammad spread the Islam; created the Five Pillars of Islam; Islamic law: the Sharia.
-Trade : Part of the Indian Ocean Trade; traded goods with China; Swahili Coast.
-Slavery : Captured African; forced them to bondage.
Islamic Similarities with
Judaism and Christianity
All three religions accept Abraham, Moses,
and Jesus as prophets
Muslims and Christians are equal to their god
All have religious sects
"People's of the Book"
Muslisms-more liberal on conversion
Two main islamic sects, the Shia (Shiite)
and the Sunni
-Ali (Mohammad's son-in-law) righful heir
-do not want hereditary succesion
-favored Abu Bakr as succecsor
Sufis were mystics who were good at conversion
-stressed strong relationship with Allah
Grew up in Mecca, where he was influenced by Judaism and Christianisty
Muhammad visited by angel Gabriel
told he was prophet of God (Allah)
His preaching caused problems with Meccan leaders
622 C.E. hijra to Medina (marks 1st day on Islamic calendar
Grew in popularity and worshipers at Medina
630 he returned to Mecca, where Islam flourished
Died unexpectedly in 632
Abu Bakr takes over as caliph (head
of state) and empire reffered to as caliphate
Order of succesion: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman,
Arabic became official language
gold/silver became standard money
Jizya (head tax if not Muslim)
expanded to Nothern Africa and Spain (Iberian Peninsula)
caliphs eventually grew lazy (fat/luxurious) and lost power
Abu al-Abbas organizes rebellion against Umayyad because Sunni rulers were oppresive and Sunni favored
Aristocracy favored Arab elite
Conquered Syria, Egypt, and the Sasanid Empire
Comes to power after Umayyad in 750
Most of the population were Arabs
Golden Age of Islam because Dynasty known for trading
High point w/ Harun al-Rashid
-reliable tax revenues
Education advances in: steel production for swords, medical and mathematic fields
administered from inherited land (did not conquer as much)
Did conquer Tunisia, Spain, Algeria, Morocco, and Sind
Battle of Talas River opens Islamic expansion to Turkis people
ends 1258 when defeated by Mongols
TImeline of periodization!!!
Description of Era:
Religion influenced people's actions and everyday lives
Disease and disunity spread
China grew in wealth and dominance
Islam emerged and grew in dominance
Organized empires emerged based on trade
Emergence of Byzantium
ROman empire collapse
from internal issues
from Germanic conquests
In 476 C.E.
Eastern half of Roman empire survives
Constantine emerges as 1st emperor
Byzantines preserve art and culture
Frescoes and mosaics
Reaches peak of empire
expanding empire with general Belisarius
Theodora (wife) was inquisistive and helpful
Justinian's code of laws
Islamic communities expand
Caliphs (deputies) emerge
Dynasties conquer and cause Islam to expand to a larger area (dar al-Islam)
Conquered Byzantine (Syria and Palestine) and Persian empire
Conquered Byzantine Egypt and N. Africa
Ruled from India to central Asian steppe
Ruled east to west Africa and Iberia
Charles Martel (Frankish leader) hindered expansion
In 633 A.D.
In 640 A.D.
-Bubonic plague: spraid by the trade route; 25 million in China, 1/3 of Europe.
-Trade: Brought wealth to merchants; made stations; paper money.
Development of Early Civilizations
Gender System in Civilizations Through 600-1450:
Under Allah's judgement, women and men were equal, but Islamic ideals reinforced male dominance
Women had no choice in the marriage, as they were the parents choice; it happened at an early age
Elite women werre given chances, as was the first women ruler, Razia Sultana
An example of male dominance is the enforcement of women to wear full body clothing
Religion and Disease
Buddhism in Central Asia and China and SE Asia
Hinduism in SE Asia
Christianity in the Mediterranean Basin and SW Asia
Manichaeism emerges in Med. Basin and Roman Empire and Mesopotamia and Sasanid Empire
Epidemic Disease spreads through Silk Roads(Black Death)
went from Luoyang and Guangzhou (Chinese capitals) to the Middle East where then it traveled to Europe
stretched from Cairo(North Africa) to Senegal River(East Africa) and down to Sofala(South Africa) and maritime trade routes
camels, gold, copper, ironware, cotton textiles, salt, grains, and carnelian beads, cloth, manufactured wares, etc..
spread Islam throughout Africa(mostly North and West Africa)
Mansa Musa made pilgramage to Mecca
Tang & Song China
fast-ripening rice, new agricultural techniques(heavy iron plows), manure, extensive irrigation system
metallurgy, porcelain, gunpowder, printing, compass, paper money, banks
controlled and taxed trade in jurisdiction
obtained gold, leopard skins, pottery, glass, and textiles
built mosques and public buildings
Zheng He's expeditions
commercial expansion in Indian Ocean Basin
Contacts Between Religions
Crusades-European response to Islam spreading
Spread of Neo-Confucianism (in China) - mixture of Confucianism with some Buddhism
Schism in Christianity (when the east and the west churches divided into Roman
Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity; they divided over the issue of icons)
The Church was divided in 1054 over the issue of control of the churches and the use of icons. Two churches emerged: Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic.
Impact of Mongol Empires
Created the largest land empire in the world
Spread traits from other cultures
Improved trade throughout Asia and eastern Europe
Paper money, banking, and letters of credit
Once areas were conquered a period of extended peace normally resulted
Cultural Impact of Islam
Spread of new foods and industrial crops
A new industry: paper manufacture
Revived silk roads: used for adminstration and trade
Chinese Compass for maritime trade
rulers supported the arts, math and science
Introduced to West: zero, decimal, alegebra
calligraphy - writing (script)
"Arabesque" - intertwined flowers, plants
Mosques w/ domes and minarets
Steel for swords
Arrived by Trans Saharan and sea lanes
Africans adopt Islam but retain culture
Appealing because-Muslims equal, and relations with Arabs
10th century, Ghana converts to Islam
Mali Empire-also converted to Islam
Mansa Musa-African emperor converted to Islam
Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca drew converts
City-state converts: Swahili, Kilwa, and Zimbabwe
Women in China had very little power, as they were mainly dominated by males
An example of this would be: women were not allowed to raise their voice at their husband, women were to stay widowed if their husband died, and new born baby girls had to under go humiliating rituals
The only exception were to the female elites: women in the Emperor's home and military people
Though powers in Africa were predominantly patriarchal, women had more oppurtunities than other women in other parts of the world
Women were mainly house workers and could have much say in the family as well as have a little power in the household
In their societies, women were less heard then men, but they could influence public affairs by showing virtue in their house hold
The world did have a network of systems, but it was limited to trade in Asia, Japan, Africa, and Europe, and with the introduction of China and Western Europe to trade brought new luxuries to the world, such as steel, silk, spices, horses, textiles, and building goods
Silk Road was used to bring foreign goods to Europe, as well as introduce new technologies to Europe during the period of Mongol reign in China
As well as trade in the Indian Ocean and between the Swahili City States, which also had Trans-Sahara Trade, with items such as gold, ivory, slaves, and precious gems
Much trade flourished through Constantinople and in Mecca, leaving the exchange of cultures, opening the world to the different technologies and luxuries
It was still a patriarchal gender system, with men soley controlling and power over their land
Women were like servants to the men, and still did house work and cared for the family
Elite women were in the family of the manor, they still had less power but had more leisure time to do what they pleased
Serfdom gave less power to all peasants and almost all power to the lord of the manor, who let the serfs use his land in return for their planting of crops
Early Urban Society:
Entertainment: tea houses, social gathering areas, markets, etc.
Largely built on trade and commerce
Peasants held less freedom because of large land and money holders were in control of political and military power
Leads to the ideals of Capitalism because of the new wealth in trade in the merchant class
Emerged after assassination of Ali
Solved succession problem
Moved Capital from to
Elites were appointed as Governers
distributed AND within themselves
Elites alienated themsleves
Lived too luxurious
Rebellion brought empire to its end
of many Empires in Africa
Intro of Camels=Trade REv
Power Struggle with
Almoravid Muslim Empire
2nd EMpire of Africa
Japanese and European Feudalism
Equal Field System
Pledges- individual vows of oath
Depended on Niger River
Distributed Gold to all of kingdom
Took EPIC visits to
Would come back and build mosque
Central Govt criples!
Military pressure from outside forces
Trade depened on Niger River
Largest most powerful Empire in AFRICA
Tuned Empire from...
Trading port cities
Traded with Persia, India, China
Each City-state ran its own Govt
disrupted the old trade routes
made the Swahili commercial centers useless
EST. After Sui Yangdi's Death
Transportation and Communication quickened
The Equal-Fields System
Civil Service Exam
Rebellion and revolt.
More centralized Govt than other Dynasties
provided Confucian edu.
The Southern Song Dynasty fell in 1279 AD when the Mongols under Khublai Khan successfully invaded and conquered China.
The Mongols then established the Yuan Dynasty.
Empire was splite by North and South Song
formed from the take down of The Yuan Dynasty(Mongols)
Zhu Yuanzhang leader of rebellions agianst Yuan became 1st Emperor
Zhu Di was Emperor Chengzu
Height of Ming Dynasty
From 1405 to 1433, Emperor Chengzu sent a person named Zhenghe to lead Ming's fleets across the Indian Ocean.
Roman Catholic Christianity
Women have more rights
Three field system
Northern India conversion
Sultans welcomed religion because Hindus polytheism not appealing
Disagreements with Hindus
The Mongols and Islam
United by Osman in 1300
Used muskets and cannons
Very lenient and accepting of religions
Mehmed the Conqueror-> opened Constantinople to Jews/Christians
Captured Mecca, Medina, Cairo, and Constantinople-> influential cities
Great Muslim Empires of the Era
Genghis Khan unites Mongols
Mongols spread religion through Jihad
religions spread along Silk Roads
Religion spread throughout conquered people
Pax Mongolica with Kublai Khan
Mongols -> great conquerors, horrible administrators
Empire stretching from Persia to the North China Sea
Fought in Crusades
* Mamluk dynasty (1206-1290)
* The Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)
* The Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1413)
* The Sayyid dynasty (1414–51)
* The Lodi dynasty (1451–1526)
Mosque of Jenne
-Origin : Turks were originally Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Middle East.
-Trade : Gained control of trade on the Mediterranean after controling many different societies; got responsible for Europe's growing interest and involvement in long-distance trade.
-Invasion : Invaded Byzantine Empire, Europe, Constantinople, India (introduced Islam to India), and other more.
-Tradition : Strong military tradition; ruled by absolute power.
-Economy : agricultural based; cacao beans as currency.
-Religion : priestly class; sacrifice ritual; bloodletting and human sacrifice.
-Effects on Europe: conquered most of coastal Europe; development of Feudalism; established trade routes.
-Culture: Polytheistic religion; agriculture based economy; worrior state.
-Scandinavia (Nordic people): targets on monasteries; maneuverable boats; established communities in Scotland, France, Eastern Europe .
Impact of migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas
Consequences of plague pandemics
By the trade the bubonic plague spread through Eurasia, the Mongol.
During the 1330s plague erupted in southwestern China, then spread throughout China and central Asia, and by the late 1340s it had reached southwest Asia and Europe, it became known as the Black Death.
Bubonic plague killed many people and it exposed population.
Disrupted economies and societies throughout much of Eurasia and north Africa.
The disease caused massive labor shortages, which in turn generated social unrest.
The plague infectes rodents and it spread to others.
In the early fourteenth century, Mongol military campaigns helped spread plague from Yunnan to China's interior; killed 90 percent of the population in Hebei.
During the 1340s Mongols, merchants, and other travelers helped to spread the disease along the trade routes to China.
Growth and role of cities
Many cities became prominent due to trade,
like in Canton, Samarkand, Timbuktu, Cairo, and Venice.
State building recovered in Western Europe.
The Renaissance recovered in Western Europe.
Education became important to people.
Improved agricultural techniques in Europe.
New tools andtechnologies. (the horseshoe and the horse collar)
New Crops (hard durumwheat, rice, spinach,
artichokes, eggplant, lemons, limes,oranges, and melon.
La Convivencia- the Co-Existence
711 to 1492 C.E.
this was a Period in Spanish history where Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived in peace with eachother.
Jews attempted to overthrow Abu Muslim in 747 C.E.
In 829-31, the Egyptian Christians of the Nile delta rebelled against the Muslim authorities because of excessive taxation and religious persecution. This rebelion turned out to be a faliure.
Yazid II (720-724) was an Umayyad Caliph that was known for ordering the destruction of Christian images within his controled territory.
The Crusades: war waged by Christian Europe agianst Muslim Middle East to restore christian control over Jerusalem
1095-1291C.E. Lasted 200 years
1066 Granada massacre
A Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred many of the Jewish population of the city.
Early signs of Anti-semitism
1099 AD - When the Crusaders invaded they slaughtered Jews. The Jews were expelled from the city under “Christian” rule.
Had to pay Jizya or a tax for being non-Muslim when under Muslim rule.
use of the Silk Road
Migrations trade and Cultural Exchange
improvments in Technology
With the introduction to Bhagavad Gita and his Bhakti movement in the 12 century, people in India are unified by the connection between Hinduism and Islam
Hindus and Delhi Sultanate, which forced Islam, were on less then friendly terms, caused by the disagreement in cultural views
Islamic states enforced beliefs, monothiestic and male dominance, while Hindus believe in Polytheism and the importance of fertility
Christians did not like Jews because Jews managed banking and Loans.
would make money off of Christians.
Caused social tension
Emperor Wahli (1572-1620)
neglecting his duties
didn't care about politics
Manchurian tribal Leaders
saw insablity and took advantage
Grew and reached its peak under the reign of Muhammad ibn Tughlu
based their laws on the Quran and Sharia (way or law)
permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid jizya (head tax)
Weak: power struggle
Babur won the First battle of Panipat
Interregional Networks and Contacts
Time Period 600 C.E.- 1450 C.E
Timeline: 600 to 1450!!!