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Water on the land revision

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by

Ciaran McGarry

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Water on the land revision

Revision guide
Geography - GCSE - Water on the Land
River Processes
Hydraulic Action
Abrasion
Solution
Attrition
Traction
'You see me rollin'
Saltation
Suspension
Solution
Match the key terms with the definitions for EROSION and TRANSPORTATION.
Sheer force of the water forces rock away from the river bed and banks.
Bits of rock flowing in the river (Load) crash against the banks and beds, breaking pieces of rock away.
The bed and banks can be dissolved by weak acids in the river water.
(Rocks such as limestone and chalk)
Rocks crash against each other and break up into smaller pieces.
Heavy rocks roll along the river bed (because the river doesn't have enough energy to carry them)
Rocks are light enough for them to bounce along the river bed
Small pieces of sediment float in the river.
Tiny bits of material (You can't even see it!) is dissolved into the river water.
Now, for some remembering...
Create 2 tables from memory - Erosion/Transportation.
Name of erosion
Describe the process
Name of erosion
Describe the process
Name of erosion
Describe the process
Name of erosion
Describe the process
Name of transportation
Describe the process
Name of transportation
Describe the process
Name of transportation
Describe the process
Name of transportation
Describe the process
Deposition is...
It happens at.....

because....


It also happens at...

because...
Vertical Erosion
Narrow channel
Steep gradient
V-shaped valley
Interlocking spurs
Lateral erosion
Wide channel
Low gradient
U shaped valley
Meanders
Large rock size
Smaller load size
REMEMBERING - Create your own river long profile (this can be on a wall!)
Draw 1 long profile and 3 cross profiles showing how a rivers cross profile changes as it goes downstream.

Label the following features to the upper course, middle and lower course to show where you would find these things.



Finally, answer the question: Explain why vertical erosion takes place in the upper course and lateral erosion takes place in the middle course of a river.
Wide channel/Narrow channel
Large load/Small load
Waterfalls
V shaped valley
U shaped valley
Vertical erosion
Lateral erosion
Meanders and Ox bow lakes
levees and floodplains
Landforms of erosion - Waterfalls and gorges
Hard rock/ cap rock
Rapids
Plunge Pool
Gorge
1. There must be bands of hard rock above soft rock.
2. Soft rock erodes more quickly than the hard rock. This is because...
3. A P_________ P________ forms at the base of the waterfall.
This is because of H____________ A___________ which is where...
4. An overhang forms and eventually collapses.
This is because...
5. A __________ is formed.
This is because the process repeats and the waterfall retreats.
Use the diagram and writing frame to explain the formation of a waterfall using a diagram.
MAP QUIZ! Answer the questions and be ready to check your answers afterward.

1. Using the contour lines (small pink lines) - describe the relief (height and shape of the land) at 83,29 (2 marks)

(REMEMBER FOR YOUR GRID REFERENCES - GO ALONG THE CORRIDOR AND UP THE STAIRS)

2.What feature is found at 849, 256?

3. What feature is found at 814, 288?

4. What is the height of the land at 823, 294?


Map Skills!
Answers:
1. V-Shaped Valley, Steep valley sides, narrow channel. (1 mark for each)
2. Tributary.
3. Mouth of the river.
4. 527m above sea level.
Landforms of erosion and deposition - meanders and ox-bow lakes
Landforms of deposition - levees and floodplains
Neck
Meander
Inner bend:
Slip-off Slope
Deposition
Outer bend:
River cliff
Erosion
Floodplain
What features can you see?
1. Firstly __________ takes place on the outer bend of the river.
This is because...
3. _______________ takes place on the inner bend of the river.
This is because...
4. The __________ of the meander is formed as the two outer bends become closer.
This is because of continued _________ of the outer bends.
Use the diagram and writing frame to explain the formation of meanders and ox bow lakes.
Erosion on the outer bend
Deposition on the inner bend
5. Eventually, the river will cut straight through and ignore the meander.
This is because when the discharge is high the river _________.
6. Finally, a ____________ scar is formed.
This is because...
2. One type of erosion that happens is _________________.
This is where...
Lets check your understanding...
Create a cross profile - like the one above.
Then, add the following labels....
Erosion
Deposition
River cliff
Slip-off slope
Fastest flowing water
Slower flowing water - less energy
Use this diagram to help you check your answers!
levee
Floodplain
Fill in the blanks to explain the formation of levees and floodplains.
1. Firstly, flooding takes place.
This is because there is too much discharge than the river can hold.
2. __________ material is deposited close to the banks, which builds the banks up.
This happens because...
3. __________ is deposited further away from the banks.
This is because...
4. Over time, the ________ build up.
This is because the process ___________ over many years.
Causes of flooding
Read through the factors below and create a table showing which are human and which are physical factors.
Impermeable rock such as granite
Previous weather
urbanisation (concreting surfaces)
steep sided valleys
Deforestation
Now match the following explanations with the key words above to help explain the factors that cause flooding.
Write down at least 1 physical and 1 human cause of flooding.
If trees are cut down, interception is decreased. As a result, there is more surface run-off which increases the discharge in the river.
If the relief is steep, gravity pulls the water down quicker, so more surface run-off is created. As a result, there is a greater amount of discharge in the river.
Rocks without cracks in it, mean that water cannot be infiltrated into the ground. This increases surface run-off meaning more water enters the river as discharge.
Flooding in MEDC's and LEDC's
Boscastle and Bangladesh

Causes
Effects
Responses
Boscastle (2004)
Bangladesh (1998)
125mm of rainfall in just a few hours.
Impermeable rocks - granite.
Steep slopes - V-shape valley.

Heavy monsoon rains.
Deforestation in Nepal.
80% of Bangladesh only 1m above sea level.

0 people died.
Wellington Hotel damaged - impact on tourism.
People were made homeless for a short period.

1070 people died.
Disease such as typhoid spread killing people.
30million people homeless.
Industry effected. 400 clothes factories closed.
Helicopters were sent in immediately to rescue 150 people from their homes.
Emergency centres setup in local school halls.
LONG TERM: £4.6m spent on flood defences.
Houses at risk built with flood proof material (electrical wires moved higher)

The government gave 350,00 tonnes of food.
Emergency supplies (water/food/medicine
were sent from other countries.
LONG TERM:Seeds were given out to
help farmers.


Flooding in MEDC's and LEDC's
Boscastle and Bangladesh

Causes
Effects
Responses
Boscastle (_____)
Bangladesh (_____)
____mm of rainfall in just a few hours.
____________ rocks - granite.
___________ - V-shape valley.

Heavy ___________ rains.
__________ in Nepal.
__% of Bangladesh only 1m above sea level.

_ people died.
___________ Hotel damaged - impact on tourism.
People were made homeless for a short period.

______ people died.
Disease such as _______ spread, killing people.
__ million people homeless.
Industry effected. ____ clothes factories closed.
Helicopters were sent in immediately to rescue ____ people from their homes.
Emergency centres setup in local school halls.
LONG TERM: £__m spent on flood defences.
Houses at risk built with flood proof material (electrical wires moved higher)

The government gave 350,00 tonnes of food.
Emergency supplies (water/food/medicine
were sent from other countries.
LONG TERM: ______ were given out to
help farmers.


What is the name of this strategy? How does it work? Hard/soft?
River straightening
It means that discharge travels through the river quicker, meaning there is less chance of flooding.
It is a hard strategy.
JOT THOUGHTS:
Now, name 3 more hard strategies and 4 soft strategies!

Choose one of each- use because/as a result to explain how they work.




Hard strategies
List as many hard strategies as you can here!
One advantage is...
One disadvantage is...
One disadvantage is..
Soft Strategies
List as many soft strategies as you can here!
One advantage is...
One advantage is...
One disadvange is..
Rivers are managed to provide water.
There are issues that result.
Land flooded behind.
Important farmland lost.
Wildlife habitats lost.
People lose their homes.
Dams are EXPENSIVE!
Dams stop flooding
Dams provide clean water.
Economic
Social
Environmental
The Kielder dam
North East England.
40kms from Newcastle.
One of the largest man-made reservoirs in Europe.
Uses aqueducts to transfer water
from areas of surplus to deficit.
Provides water for Sunderland, Middlesborough and Newcastle.
Tourism income has risen vastly - due to watersports on the reservoir.
Flood risk has been reduced.
10,000 homes have clean energy from HEP.
It supplies water to cities including Newcastle, Sunderland, Durham, Darlington and Middlesborough.
A valley which was an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty was drowned, also destroying wildlife habitats.
The project was expensive. The total cost of the scheme was £185 million.

Farmers lost land and families had to move.
Q. Using a case study, describe the issues that a dam/reservoir can have on people and the environment. (8 marks)
Now create a plan for the following practice question:
Intro:

Paragraph 1

Paragraph 2:

Paragraph 3:
Bullet points/facts/figures.
Full transcript