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Transcript of Hinduism
"Aum" or "Om"
picture/statue of god/goddess HINDUISM History Dates back to at least 2000 BCE
Developed and flourished mainly in India and Nepal
Hindus call it santana dharma meaning "eternal teaching" or "eternal law"
Currently over 750 million Hindus gods and goddesses Thousands of gods and goddesses
Each with their own special characteristics Endless Cycle Samsara = endless cycle of death and rebirth Mandala How Hinduism Began Hinduism has its roots in an ancient civilization known as the Indus Valley Civilization
Thrived between 3500 and 1500 BCE
Believed to have ended when Aryans arrived in India
Hinduism developed from the religious ideas of both groups Developed slowly over time
A varied religion Brahman Unchanging ultimate reality Every living being has a soul = Atman Brahma the creator Vishnu the preserver Shiva the destroyer Avatars A physical form taken by a god or goddess that has come down to the human world Karma A person's actions, good or bad
Hindus believe all actions show results in this life and the next Moksha Release from the cycle of rebirth and suffering
Achieved by replacing ignorance with wisdom
Prevented by maya (illusion) Sacred Writings 4 sacred writings in Sanskrit
poem about royal family feud
Brahman and how to achieve moksha
The Ramayana Place in Society Hindu scriptures contain guidelines on how the 4 social groups (varnas) in India should work in harmony
Brahmins = priests and teachers
Kshatriyas = rulers and soldiers
Vaishyas = merchants and farmers
Shudras = manual workers
Today, there are thousands of social groups called castes
born into a caste that defines a Hindu's place in society Stages of Life 4 stages of life (ashramas)
the family man
the wandering holy man ULTIMATE GOAL Achieve moksha and be united with Brahman Dharma is a duty or way of behaving that governs a person's life Determined by a person's varna and ashrama Important Life Events 16 samskaras mark important stages Birth Customs Coming of Age Hindu Weddings Death Customs "Aum" written on the tongue
Baby naming (namakarana)
horoscope is cast Ceremony (upanayana) for boys between the ages of 8 and 12
now old enough to learn more about his religion Often arranged by parents
Can last up to 12 days
Share common rituals Believe that after a person dies their soul comes back in another form
dying near the River Ganges may bring them closer to moksha
Body is created, no longer needed Worship = Puja At home in front of family shrine
light a lamp and pray together every day
believe it helps to focus the mind and towards understanding Brahman Temples No strict rules about when to go to temple
Dedicated to a particular god/goddess
May bring offerings (fruit and flowers) Pilgrimages Yoga Yoga and meditation used in search for moksha
Extreme self-discipline, complex physical and mental exercises
to gain control over body and mind ALSO the different paths toward moksha and union with Brahman
Karma yoga - the discipline of action
Bhatki yoga - the discipline of devotion
Jnana yoga - the discipline of knowledge The Hindu Year Calendar has 12 lunar months
used to calculate dates of festival and religious events
Hundreds of religious festivals each year Diwali 5-day festival
Worship Lakshmi, goddess of wealth and beauty
Celebrate the return of Rama and Sita from exile
Known as "Festival of Lights"