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Human Trafficking in the UK
Transcript of Human Trafficking in the UK
To escape war and conflict within the victims home country (Shelley, 2010).
Violation of human rights creates a vulnerability whereby human trafficking can be made possible (Haynes, 2010). How is 'Human Trafficking' defined? “Any illegal transport of migrant women and/or trade in them for economic or other personal gain; this may include: - facilitating illegal movement to other countries, with or without their consent or knowledge; - deceiving migrant women about the purpose of migration; - physically or sexually abusing them for the purpose of trafficking them; and selling women into, or trading in women for the purposes of employment, marriage prostitution or other forms of profit-making abuse." (1998:2-3) It can happen to anybody... Policies surrounding Human Trafficking There are no specific laws within the UK preventing human trafficking. However, one law linking to this issue is the 'Sexual Offences 1956 Act'.
It is an offence for a person: (a) to procure a woman to become, in any part of the world, a common prostitute; or (b) to procure a woman to leave the United Kingdom, intending her to become an inmate of or frequent a brothel elsewhere; or (c) to procure a woman to leave her usual place of abode in the United Kingdom, intending her to become an inmate or frequent a brothel in any part of the world for the purposes of prostitution.
It is an offence for a person to detain a woman against her will on any premises with the intention that she shall have unlawful sexual intercourse with men or with a particular man, or to detain a woman against her will in a brothel. Part (2) details that withholding clothes or any other property belonging to the woman, or making threats of legal action should she attempt to retrieve her property, counts as evidence of having committed the offence.’
These laws, particularly section 22, is more concerned with trafficking outside of the UK and acknowledges that it is difficult to prove that this act is taking place. Within the UK, the maximum sentence given under sections 22-29 is two years. Is this dismissing the issue of Human Trafficking? Global responses and Solutions There are a number of organisations and charities which have been put in place to raise awareness of the issues and affects surrounding trafficking, and who also work to reduce further cases.
For example, The UK Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC), a multi-agency organisation is led by SOCA. It aims is 'to provide a central point of expertise and coordination in relation to the UK’s response to the trafficking of human beings.’
The organisation is made up of 3 interlinked parts:
Prevention – to reduce harm and protect victims of trafficking through raising awareness and maximising and reviewing preventative efforts
Protection – Support and protection for victims is its main priority. Involves working with different organisations across the country to ensure full care.
Prosecution – To identify and prosecute those responsible for trafficking. Through offering training and advice to public agencies such as the police force to identify offenders. Shares tactics and techniques. By Fiona Gourlay and Naomi Foulkes Human Trafficking in the UK 'Human Trafficking' is a highly contested term, with some definitions being more universally accepted than others.
Whereas the European Commission (1996:2) has a more narrow-minded definition, suggesting that trafficking only involved the 'transport of women from third would countries into the EU ... for the purpose of exploitation', Escaler offers a broader and more generalised definition: The Scale of the problem BBC (2012) found that Human Trafficking within the UK is increasingly on the uprise. ‘Last year the authorities learned of 946 victims, compared with 710 in 2010, the inter-departmental ministerial group on human trafficking said. Trafficking gangs in China, Vietnam, Nigeria and eastern Europe now pose the biggest threat to the UK’. Not for Sale: End Human Trafficking and Slavery This clip coveys the harsh reality that there are now more slaves in the world today than there ever has been in history. MALE TRAFFICKING FEMALE TRAFFICKING CHILD TRAFFICKING Amnesty International DNA Foundation The DNA Foundation (Demi and Ashton foundation) was set up in 2009 in order to raise awareness of the issues surrounding Human Trafficking and sex slavery amongst children.
Through recognising that a number of these crimes are increasingly being facilitated by the internet and technology, they have employed this strategy to reach out to people and work towards ending sexual exploitation amongst children (DNA, 2013). A number of celebrities have also been involved to help increase this awareness. Bibliography To Conclude... Human Trafficking is an increasing phenomenon within the UK, but also globally. This suggests that there is not enough action being taken to reduce the problem, meaning more and more individuals are becoming victims. It is often a common misconception that women are the only victims of human trafficking. However, it is evident through the discussed case studies that the issue can affect the lives of anybody.
There are a number of charities which work to prevent human trafficking, but there has not been enough awareness raised. In order for true change to take place, educating the next generation must become a priority (The A21 Campaign, 2013). However, it is also important to continue to educate all individuals. There has recently been some progression within airlines, such as Virgin Atlantic and Thomas Cook, where cabin crew are trained to identify traffickers and potential victims, in order to help reduce the problem (Home Office, 2012).
Furthermore, there must be a greater approach taken by government bodies and policy makers, introducing laws which specifically focus on the issue of trafficking, and implementing harsher sentences and punishments for traffickers. Amnesty international is an organization that believes in justice and the value of human rights.
‘We are ordinary people from around the world standing up for humanity and human rights. Our purpose is to protect individuals wherever justice, fairness, freedom and truth are denied.’
Amnesty international is a campaigning organisation. They aim to protect people wherever they feel ‘justice, fairness and truth are denied'. Therefore, although amnesty international is not an organization solely focused around the concept of Human Trafficking, their work and campaigns that aim to protect human rights and highlight global inequalities help to raise awareness of such issues. It has been recorded that the trafficking of women to such countries as India and China has increased due to the lack of female population. The current ratio of men to women in India is now 120 males to 100 females. This is due to the gender inequality within the countries as females were getting aborted due to the preference of a baby boy within the family.
Due to the lack of female population in such countries as India and China mean women from outside the countries are at risk of being kidnapped and trafficked and not only forced into prostitution but also wedlock. Furthermore, Chinese police statistics recorded 65,236 arrests for female trafficking in 1990- 1991 alone (Walker, 2006). The extent of male trafficking has failed to be acknowledged in society, with there being a false perception that females are the only victims. However, this is far from reality.
The Salvation Army (2011) found that over two fifths of victims trafficked to the UK are male.
In 2010, two cases of men being trafficked into gay slavery had been discovered in Scotland (Pink News, 2010). Victims such as these are brought over to the UK in promise of paid work. Men are used to sell sex, but to also take part in manual labour in order to repay the sex traffickers travel and living expenses. This is Marinela Badea. She was just a 17 year old student from Romania when she was trafficked to Britain. She was kidnapped, held as a prisoner and thrown into a nightmare of sex crimes.
She had been raped, on average, 50 times a week by various men. Seven days a week, she was forced to work a 12 hour shift. She was later arrested for such crimes, only soon to be found innocent and a victim of trafficking.
Marinela's story is one of many. 'In the UK, police found evidence that at least 400 women from eastern Europe have been trafficked...but campaigners say the true number runs into the thousands.' In 2010, almost 5,890 brothels were identified within England and Wales alone (Guardian, 2011). Female Trafficking is global... The A21 campaign works to abolish any injustices that occur with the 21st century. Similar to UKHTC, A21 follows four main P's to outline its mission.
PREVENTION - it aims to stop trafficking through raising awareness and education. Presentations are carried out in schools, universities and orphanages, reaching out to victims and suppliers of human slave trade.
PROTECTION - through the building of shelters and transition homes, A21 help offer a stable environmet for survivors, equipping them for a positive future.
PROSECUTION - they aim to strengthen the laws surrounding trafficking and prosecute traffickers. They also offer support to victims in criminal proceedings.
PARTNERSHIP - they partner with local service providers and law enforcement to meet the needs of victims. A21... Often trafficking is understood as an external issue, however, evidence shows that trafficking is happening internally within the UK. Barnardo's found that child trafficking in the UK has increased, year on year, by 22%. Since Barnardo's began in 1886, the charity has found that just a quarter of the recorded 1,452 victims have been trafficked for sexual purposes within the country (BBC, 2013).
A snapshot of Barnardo's statistics show that the recorded number of children trafficked within the UK has increased from 76 cases in 2011 to 140 in 2012 (BBC, 2013). However, there are a vast amout of cases which have not been recorded. In 2011, Nigerian police raided a hospital in Aba, rescuing 32 pregnant teenagers who were foud to be held by traffickers, the BBC (2011) reported. The young girls were kept in order to help run a 'baby farm', where they would be forced to produce children who could be sold.
The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) found that babies were sold right across the country for up to £3900, depending on the sex of the baby. Many of the babies were also put up for illegal adoption.
These babies can be sold to families in order to be killed within witchcraft rituals, being seen as a lucky charm. Furthermore, some of these babies are smuggled into countries such as the UK to help women get on the list for council flats (BBC, 2011). Child Trafficking is global... Male Trafficking is global... Amnesty International. (2013). Our Work. Available: http://www.amnesty.org.uk/content.asp?CategoryID=10010. Last accessed 20th Feb 2013
BBC (2011) Nigeria 'baby farm' girls rescued by Abia State Police, Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13622679 Accessed 22/02/2013
BBC (2012), ‘Human Trafficking to UK rising’, Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19984615, Accessed 21/01/2013
BBC (2013), Barnardo's concern over child sex trafficking rise, Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-20999529, Accessed 22/02/2013
DNA Foundation (2011), 'Real Men Prefer a Close Shave', Available at Accessed 28/01/2013
Haynes, P. (2010). Global points of vulnerability: understanding the processes of trafficking of children and young people into, within and out of the UK. The International Journal of Human Rights. 14 (6), 952 - 970.
Home Office (2012), Human trafficking gangs targeted by UK government, Available at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/news/human-trafficking-report, Accessed 03/03/2013
Home Office (2012), Report on the Internal Review of Human Trafficking Legislation, Available at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/human-trafficking-legislation?view=Binary, Accessed 03/03/2013
Kelly. L & Regan. L (2000) 'Stopping Traffic: Exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK, Available http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs125.pdf, Accessed 29/01/2013
Pink News (2010), Men being trafficked into Scotland as gay sex slaves, Available at http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2010/04/13/men-being-trafficked-into-scotland-as-gay-sex-slaves/ Accessed 23/02/2013
Shelley, L (2010)., Human Trafficking. [online]. Cambridge University Press Textbooks. Available at http://lib.myilibrary.com?ID=277136 Accessed: 29 January 2013
SOCA (2013), Introduction to UKHTC, Available at http://www.soca.gov.uk/about-soca/about-the-ukhtc, Accessed 21/01/2013
The A21 Campaign (2013), Our Mission, Available at
http://www.thea21campaign.org/content/our-mission/gjebsw Accessed 22/02/2013
The Guardian (2011), Two-fifths of UK trafficking victims are male, Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/law/2012/apr/26/two-fifths-human-trafficking-male, Accessed 23/02/2013
UN (2013) Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling, Available at https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/index.html, Accessed 03/03/2013
Walker, M. (2006). The geopolitics of sexual frustration. Available: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2006/02/17/the_geopolitics_of_sexual_frustration?wpisrc=obinsite Accessed 20/02/2013 An example of male trafficking can be found in Cambodia. According to the UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP), there are thousands of Cambodian men who are trafficked each year for the purpose of labour exploitation (IRIN, 2009).
A large majority of these male victims faced job losses, a rising debt and diminished remittances, giving traffickers an ideal environment to work in. These men are abused, exploited and treated like slaves as a result of the false belief that they are turning to a better life.
In 2008, a law was passed in Cambodia which provided a legal framework to prosecute traffickers. However, because of the limited resources and finance, tackling this issue proves difficult. Therefore, the issue of male trafficking is on the increase. Vulnerability Slavery Purchase Abuse of power Forced labour Exploitation Enticement Control Transportation Profit Trading But what is the scale of the problem? Child pornography 1. Did you find this presentation useful?
2. Did anything within this presentation surprise you?
3. What are your thoughts on Human Trafficking being more prominent today than throughout history?
4. Do you think there is enough being done to prevent trafficking in the future?
5. Are you surprised that there is no specific law within the UK regarding Human Trafficking? Within recent years, the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 was implemented within England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This criminalises holding another individual in servitude or slavery, demanding them to take part in forced labour. Since 2010, 15 offences had been prosecuted under this legislation (Home Office, 2012).
Another legislation, which extends to Scotland, is the Asylum and Immigration Act 2010. This Act criminalises trafficking of non-sexual exploitation, regardless of whether the exploitation is to take place (Home Office, 2012). Questions... Policies surrounding Human Trafficking