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Colour Theory

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by

Deborah Healy

on 16 November 2011

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Transcript of Colour Theory

Types of temporary colours
Colour mascaras
Colour shampoos
Colour mousses
Colour gels and creams
Colour sprays
Colour setting lotions In 1666 Isaac Newton discovered how we saw colour, he found that light contained all the colours of the rainbow. He used prisms to break light into individual colours. Colour originates in light, and sunlight as we see it is colourless. Light actually goes from the source (the sun) to the object (the apple) and then the detector (the eye and brain). ‘The effect on something’s appearance of the way it reflects light: pigment or paint (or hair colour).’ This is your eye, it is basically a ball with a hole at the front called the pupil. Light enters through the pupil and splashes onto the retina. Optic nerves then carry the information about the light to the brain.
The retina is filled with cells, cones or rods. Cones allow you to see colour and rods to see black and white. The human eye can see 7 million colours. Over 74% of women colour their hair ‘I found I could say things with colour and shapes that I couldn't say any other way, things I had no words for.’Georgia O’Keefe write on the paper provided a sentence describing what you think Depth and Tone is. Depth is how light or dark the colour appears. It is determined by how many pigments are in the hair Create a human line of Depth.One end DarkestOther end Lightest Tone describes the colour seen. It is produced by the proportions of different pigments in the hair The two main melanin’s (pigments) found in the cortex are, Eumelanin and Pheomelanin Eumelanin = is the main melanin for black and brown colours Pheomelanin = is the melanin for reds and yellow colours When the hair is in its germinating stage of hair growth, the hair colour pigments (melanin) are deposited into the hair shaft at the papilla. White hair happens when the natural process of melanin forming in the germinating stages decreases or stops Yellow/Red pigments are small and rod shaped and are more abundant in Lighter/ more red hair and are more difficult to remove Brown/black pigments are larger more oval shaped and easier to remove from the hair, They are more abundant in dark hair. Hydrogen peroxide is mixed with both permanent colours and bleaches. It is the most common chemical used in hairdressing to provide oxygen. It is used to lighten the hair pigment and to develop the colour of oxidation tints We use different strengths of peroxide to achieve different results % (20vol)
To cover white hair
Adding colour that is the same depth
Darkening
On scalp bleaching
1 level of lift
Toner
Can be used in liquid form as a pre-softener to soften resistant white hair 9% (30vol)
2 shades of lift
Can be used with special blondes 12% (40 vol)
Used with special blondes
3-4 shades of lift International Colour Chart
This is a coding system that identifies the
depth and tone of hair colour and colouring
products.
It is used to help determine the selection of colour 2 Black
3 Dark brown
4 Medium brown
5 Light Brown
6 Dark blonde
7 Mid blonde
8 Light blonde
9 Very light blonde
10 Lightest blonde /0 Natural
/1 Ash(grey)
/2 Soft Ash(green)
/3 Gold(yellow)
/4 Red
/5 Mahogany
/6 Violet(purple)
/7 Brunette
/8 Pearl(blue) Undercoat!
For every natural depth/base or hair there is an element of warmth.
This warmth is produced by the natural pigments of the hair shinning through.
When we lighten hair these pigments show through more strongly and must be considered when we are selecting colour. 10/0Very pale yellow
9/0Pale yellow
8/0Yellow
7/0Yellow/orange
6/0Orange
5/0Orange/red
4/0Red
3/0Red
2/0Red The different types of Hair colours Why Do We Colour Hair? Cover grey hair
Enhance a haircut
Change of image
Changes in fashion
Dry out greasy hair
Add texture to style Temporary colour
Semi-permanent colour
Quasi-permanent colour
Permanent colour
Bleach. The effects of temporary colour
Large colour molecules coat the hair cuticle.
There is no penetration of the hair cortex.
The colour will last for only 1 or 2 washes. The effects of semi-permanent colour
Small colour molecules are deposited into the hair cuticle and the outer edge of the hair cortex.
The colour will last for between 6 to 8 washes.
If the hair is unevenly porous, the result may be patchy. The effects of quasi-permanent colour
The quasi-permanent colour is mixed with a low-volume oxidant (1:2 ratio).
Different sized colour molecules enter the cortex and are oxidized by the oxidant.
Because the oxidant is mild, the colour molecules do not become very large and are gradually lost each time the hair is shampooed.
The colour is designed to fade over a period of 12 weeks. The effects of permanent colour – stage 1
The permanent colour is mixed with hydrogen peroxide.
The strength of hydrogen peroxide used varies depending on the desired result (10, 20, 30 or 40 volume).
When mixed with hydrogen peroxide, the small colourless molecules penetrate the hair cuticle and the hair cortex. The effects of permanent colour – stage 2
The hydrogen peroxide begins to break down into water and oxygen.
The oxygen from the hydrogen peroxide joins together with and oxidises the small colourless molecules.
The oxidised molecules swell to form large, colour molecules.
The large colour molecules are unable to pass back through the hair cuticle and become trapped within the hair cortex. The hair before bleaching

Bleaching is the process of changing the natural colour pigments in the hair so they become colourless.









The natural hair pigments are melanin and pheomelanin. Natural colour pigment The hair after bleaching

The bleach penetrates the hair cortex and oxidises the natural colour pigment so that it becomes colourless.





For example, brown melanin pigments are changed to colourless oxymelanin. Colourless, oxymelanin. Temporary hair colours can be used for the following

To introduce your client to hair colouring

To produce short term fashion effects

To temporarily restore faded hair to its natural colour

To neutralise the yellowish tinge in white or grey hair

To tone down over lightened hair without causing further chemical damage

To temporarily add colour to the hair without changing its condition

Pre pigmentation of the hair Disadvantages of having temporary colour

Colour is of short duration, it must be applied after every shampoo

Coating is thin and may not cover hair evenly

Colour may rub off on pillows or collars and may run off when sweating

They can only add colour they cant lighten

Staining may result if the hair is porous Semi permanent hair colours can be used for the followingTo introduce your client to hair colouring

To produce short term fashion effects

To temporarily restore faded hair to its natural colour

To neutralise the yellowish tinge in white or grey hair

To tone down over lightened hair without causing further chemical damage

To temporarily add colour to the hair without changing its condition

Pre pigmentation of the hair

Blend in grey hair

Longer lasting than temporary Disadvantages of having semi permanent colour

Colour is of short duration, it must be applied after every 6 – 8 shampoos
Will not cover 100% grey hair
Stains skin, scalp and clothes
Colour fades gradually after every wash
Colour may rub off on pillows or collars and may run off when sweating
They can only add colour they cant lighten
Staining may result if the hair is porous Quasi colours can be used for the following

To introduce your client to hair colouring

To produce short fashion effects

To neutralise the yellowish tinge in white or grey hair

To tone down over lightened hair without causing further chemical damage

Blend in grey hair You can achieve 3 outcomes with permanent colours

They can darken hair
They can lighten hair
They can change the tone of the hair

You can also get a combination of the above
They cover 100% grey hair
Permanent colours cannot be washed out of the hair Permanent colours are alkaline on the pH scale about 9.0 to 9.5 hence they swell the hair shaft and open the cuticle to allow penetration.

Permanent colours contain a para compound that some clients are allergic to.

You must ensure that a skin test is carried out prior to the service being undertaken All permanent colours have to be mixed with another solution called a peroxide H2 O2 which adds the oxygen allowing the oxidisation process to take place in the hair.

You must understand the different strengths of peroxides that are available and their uses. In 1666 Isaac Newton discovered how we saw colour, he found that light contained all the colours of the rainbow. He used prisms to break light into individual colours.
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