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Italian and German Unification

AP 2011

sean meade

on 7 February 2012

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Transcript of Italian and German Unification

Italy Unification Germany Unification 1860 1866 1871 Dialect Tuscany
Dante (Divine Comedie)
Machiavelli (Prince)

Other Authors 1815
1830's Congress of Vienna Redrew the map, North to Austria,
South the Kingdom of Two Sicilies
Rome to Leo X, no nudity in art, Inquisition, Conservative Revolts, 1820- Austria invaded to put down the liberals (Holy Alliance). Carbonari formed. 1830's
Carbonari active
Young Italy formed by
Giuseppe Mazzini
Republic a goal
Insurrections put down until
and including 1848 Petrarch
In exile Giuseppe Mazzini
Republic of 1848/9 was crushed
Well admired
Sought a Republic until
he died in 1872 Piedmont-Sardinia had fought Austria in 1848, and lost
But won the acclaim of the Italians
King Victor Emmanuel will lead the movement with the key
help of Count Camillo di Cavour Cavour Victor Emmanuel Piedmont-
Sardinia Cavour
Reorganized Army
Public Works Projects
He gained support
He needed an Ally, (France).
P-S role in the Crimean War
add to the respect for P-S Napoleon III Enemy- Austria Issue
Unite N. Italy
Remove Austria
Secret Alliance for defense
Cavour instigates war and
comes into the fight Plombiers
1858 Secret Agreement to
End War, France and Austria
P-S felt betrayed Result:
France Out, Got Nice and Savoy from P-S (eventually!!!
Milan and Lombardy to P-S
Tuscany, Parma, Modena vote
to Join P-S
All but Venice joined in N. Italy Then there was
Garibaldi With the 1,000
Il Mile (Red Shirts)
He conquered the
K o 2 Sicilies
Joined w/ P-S after a scare
Papal States taken by Cavour Plebescite Villafranca Prussia fougt Austria
Italy sided with Prussia
Italy wanted and got Venice Pope Pius IX
Syllabus of Errors
Vatican Council 1870/1 followed
Conservative Parliamentary Monarchy
Victor Emmanuel I
1st King of Italy Florence
Site of first meeting
for the Parliament Mazzini
Still desired a republic
until his death in 1872 An attempt in 1867 to take Rome was stopped by France
The Franco-Prussian war removed the French Troops
Rome was taken and through a plebiscite made the Capital
July, 1871 Herder Zollverein 1818-1860 stepping stone
All German states
No Austria (Osterreich) 1848 was a failure Napoleon helped by reducing the # of states w/ help from the C o V (1815) Prussia led by King Wilhem (r1861-1888)
Concerned with:
A- War with Austria (will be planned for though)
so: increased taxes to double army
B-Parliament unsupportive of taxes and army (mostly liberal middle class)
so: Otto von Bismarck will deal with them, and he did Otto von Bismarck:
-Prussian land owning Junker
-Member of the Reichstag
-Diplomat to Russia and France
Appointed Chief Minister in 1862 to push through funding
He did by bypassing Parliament Denmark:
Took Schleswig and Holstein (issue from 1848) in 1864
-Both Austria and Prussia respond
-Schleswig for Prussia to oversee
-Holstein for Austria
Bismarck will use this
Realpolitik !! Bismarck plans for war:
-Aus mit dem Osterreich
-"One must always have two irons in the fire"
-"The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions - that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849- but by blood and iron."
Preparation for Austria
-France, lured out of the war with a promise of territory along the Rhine (Italy)
-Russia, neutral due to Prussia's prior assistance with Poland (Bismarck was Ambassador there)
-Italy, asked to join so with the lure of Venice

Cause: S und H

Development: Railroads, new Enflield rifles, Prussian advantage

Result: 7 Weeks war, fair peace treaty !! Italy got Venice, France got nothing!
Austria out of Germany
Northern German Confederation

Southern Germany still outside!! Pre-1948 Treaty of Frankurt 1871
-Indemnity 5b francs (was paid in full)
-occupation of areas until indemnity paid
-lose of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany
- William I recognized as Kaiser
-trade regualted and prisoners exchanged
-Revanchism (patriotism and retribution), helped
cause WWI Other results
-End of 2nd Republic
-Rise of 3rd
-Paris bombarded by Germany
-Paris Commune rose and sought separation
-French destroy the Paris Commune by Gov't
based in Versailles
-10's of thousands died (Communards)
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